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Fernand Petzl Fernand Petzl (April 7, 1913 – May 31, 2003) was a caver and manufacturer of outdoor equipment under the brand name Petzl. Petzl lived most of his life in the village of Saint-Ismier (near Grenoble), France at the foot of the mountain Dent De Crolles. He first went caving in in 1933, and was immediately captivated by the idea of exploring beyond the cave's known limits. Subsequent explorations there with Pierre Chevalier, Charles Petit-Didier and others culminated in connections to other caves in the massif, forming the which, in 1947, became the deepest cave in the world. Petzl also participated in explorations in the Gouffre Berger, which set a new world depth record in 1956 as the first cave deeper than 1000 metres (-1122m). Petzl was a proponent of cave explorations by small teams, an innovation at the time. During this period, when there were no manufacturers of specialized caving equipment, cavers adapted equipment from other sources, or made their own. After 1933 Petzl began making rope ladders for his own use, developed a scaling-pole in 1940, and began testing the first nylon ropes in 1942. In 1968 Bruno Dressler asked Petzl, who worked as a metals machinist, to build a rope-ascending tool he had developed, and in the 1970s Petzl started a small caving equipment manufacturing company that bore his name. In subsequent years the Petzl brand was expanded to include climbing and ski-mountaineering gear, and continues today as one of the world’s best–known manufacturers of mountaineering equipment. > en data from Internet Ферна́нд Петцль (фр. Fernand Petzl; 7 апреля 1913 — 1 июня 2003, Гренобль) — французский спелеолог и основатель фирмы по производству спелео- и альпинистского снаряжения Petzl. Один из основоположников современной техники исследования пещер. Петцль прожил бо́льшую часть своей жизни в деревне (рядом с Греноблем) во Франции у подножья горы . Своё первое подземное путешествие он совершил в 1933 году, в пещеру , и тут же загорелся желанием заниматься исследованием пещер, поиском новых ходов и продолжений. Последующие исследования вместе с Пьером Шевалье, Шарлем Пти-Дидье и другими завершились объединением пещер массива в одну систему , которая в 1947 году стала самой длинной и самой глубокой пещерой в мире. Петцль также участвовал в исследованиях пещеры Гуфр-Берже, где в 1956 году был установлен новый рекорд глубины: это была первая пещера глубиной более 1000 метров (-1122 м). Петцль был сторонником исследования пещер небольшими группами, что было на тот момент новшеством. В то время не было производителей специализированного снаряжения для спелеологов, поэтому приходилось адаптировать для пещер снаряжение, заимствованное из других видов спорта, либо изобретать самим. С 1933 года Петцль начал делать верёвочные лестницы для собственных нужд, разработал сборный шест для штурма восходящих уступов в 1940 году, а в 1942 начал первые эксперименты с нейлоновой верёвкой. В 1968 году Бруно Дресслер попросил Петцля, работавшего слесарем по металлу, сделать устройство для подъёма по верёвке, которое он изобрел. А в начале 70-х Петцль открыл небольшое производство специализированного снаряжения, унаследовавшее фамилию своего основателя. В последующие годы фирма активно развивалась, и бренд Petzl завоевал лидирующие позиции в производстве снаряжения для спелеологов, скалолазов, альпинистов и других видов активного туризма. > ru data from Internet Fernand Petzl (7 d'abril 1913 — 31 de maig 2003) fou un espeleòleg francès, fabricant de material de muntanya sota la marca . Petzl va viure la major part de la seva vida al poble de Sant-Ismier (prop de Grenoble) al peu de la (). Va començar a fer espeleologia al el 1933, i fou immediatament captivat per la idea d'explorar els límits de la cova. Exploracions subsegüents amb Pierre Chevalier, Charles Petit-Didier i d'altres culminaren en trobades de diverses connexions de coves al massís, formant la Xarxa de la Dent de Crolles que, el 1947, esdevenia la cova més profunda al món. Petzl també va participar en exploracions de la Gouffre Berger, establint un nou rècord mundial de fondària d'avenc el 1956 per sota dels 1000 metres (-1122m). Petzl proposava exploracions de cova en equips petits, una innovació per a l'època. Durant aquest període, com que no hi havia cap fabricant especialitzat en material d'espeleologia, l'equipament era adaptat d'altres activats, o fet propi. El 1933 Petzl va començar a fer escales de corda per al seu ús propi, va desenvolupar un bastó d'escalada el 1940, i va començar a provar les primeres cordes de niló el 1942. El 1968 Bruno Dressler va proposar a Petzl, que treballava com a mecànic de metalls, construir una eina d'alçada de corda que havia desenvolupat, i als anys 1970 Petzl va començar una petita empresa de fabricació de material d'espeleologia sota el seu nom. Els anys següents, la marca Petzl es va expandir per incloure-hi material d'escalada i d'esquí-alpinisme, tot esdevenint un dels fabricants amb més renom al món del material d'alpinisme. > ca data from Internet Fernand Petzl (7 avril 1913 - 1er juin 2003 à Grenoble) est un spéléologue français. Il a fondé la société Petzl mondialement reconnue pour ses inventions facilitant les explorations souterraines, puis l'escalade et l'alpinisme. > fr data from Internet Petzl# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Fernand Petzl (7 avril 1913 - 1er juin 2003 à Grenoble) est un spéléologue français. Il a fondé la société Petzl mondialement reconnue pour ses inventions facilitant les explorations souterraines, puis l'escalade et l'alpinisme. > fr data from Internet Ферна́нд Петцль (фр. Fernand Petzl; 7 апреля 1913 — 1 июня 2003, Гренобль) — французский спелеолог и основатель фирмы по производству спелео- и альпинистского снаряжения Petzl. Один из основоположников современной техники исследования пещер. > ru data from Internet Fernand Petzl (April 7, 1913 – May 31, 2003) was a caver and manufacturer of outdoor equipment under the brand name Petzl. Petzl lived most of his life in the village of Saint-Ismier (near Grenoble), France at the foot of the mountain Dent De Crolles. He first went caving in in 1933, and was immediately captivated by the idea of exploring beyond the cave's known limits. Subsequent explorations there with Pierre Chevalier, Charles Petit-Didier and others culminated in connections to other caves in the massif, forming the which, in 1947, became the deepest cave in the world. Petzl also participated in explorations in the Gouffre Berger, which set a new world depth record in 1956 as the first cave deeper than 1000 metres (-1122m). Petzl was a proponent of cave explorations by small teams, a > en data from Internet Fernand Petzl (7 d'abril 1913 — 31 de maig 2003) fou un espeleòleg francès, fabricant de material de muntanya sota la marca . Petzl va viure la major part de la seva vida al poble de Sant-Ismier (prop de Grenoble) al peu de la (). Va començar a fer espeleologia al el 1933, i fou immediatament captivat per la idea d'explorar els límits de la cova. Exploracions subsegüents amb Pierre Chevalier, Charles Petit-Didier i d'altres culminaren en trobades de diverses connexions de coves al massís, formant la Xarxa de la Dent de Crolles que, el 1947, esdevenia la cova més profunda al món. Petzl també va participar en exploracions de la Gouffre Berger, establint un nou rècord mundial de fondària d'avenc el 1956 per sota dels 1000 metres (-1122m). Petzl proposava exploracions de cova en equips petit > ca data from Internet Fernand Petzl > en data from Internet Fernand Petzl > en data from Internet 4375028 data from Internet Fernand_Petzl# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Fernand Petzl > fr data from Internet Fernand Petzl > ca data from Internet Fernand Petzl > en data from Internet Петцль, Фернанд > ru data from Internet 1913 data from Internet Fernand_Petzl# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Édouard-Alfred Martel Édouard-Alfred Martel (1 July 1859, Pontoise, Val-d'Oise – 3 June 1938, Montbrison), the 'father of modern speleology', was a world pioneer of cave exploration, study, and documentation. Martel explored thousands of caves in his native France and many other countries, popularised the pursuit of cave exploration, introduced the concept of speleology as a distinct area of scientific study, maintained an extensive archive, and in 1895 founded Société de Spéléologie, the first organisation devoted to cave science in the world. > en data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 juli 1859 - Montbrison, 3 juni 1938) wordt gezien als de grondlegger van de moderne speleologie. > nl data from Internet Эдуард Альфред Мартель (фр. Édouard-Alfred Martel) (1859 — 1938) — французский учёный, географ, картограф, основоположник спелеологии. > ru data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julho de 1859 - Montbrison, 3 de junho de 1938) é considerado o fundador da espeleologia moderna. > pt data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel, né le 1er juillet 1859 à Pontoise et mort le 3 juin 1938 à Saint-Thomas-La-Garde, est considéré comme le fondateur de la spéléologie moderne. > fr data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de juliol de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lluny de Montbrison, 3 de juny de 1938), fou un advocat francès apassionat de les ciències naturals i la geografia que és considerat el fundador de l'espeleologia moderna. > ca data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julio de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lejos de Montbrison, 3 de junio de 1938​) fue un abogado francés apasionado de las ciencias naturales y la geografía que es considerado el fundador de la espeleología moderna. > es data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1º luglio 1859 – Montbrison, 3 giugno 1938) è stato uno speleologo, geografo e cartografo francese, è considerato il padre della speleologia moderna e dell'idrologia sotterranea..Era stato il primo a considerare la speleologia come ramo della geografia fisica.Aveva esplorato molte regioni carsiche d'Europa. Aveva studiato al Liceo Condorcet a Parigi, nel 1895 aveva fondato la Société de Spéléologie (Società di speleologia) che era la prima organizzazione del genere in Europa. Dall'anno della fondazione fino al 1900 la società aveva pubblicato un periodico intitolato Spelunca. La società si sciolse nel 1914 all'inizio della prima guerra mondiale. > it data from Internet Der Franzose Édouard Alfred Martel (* 1. Juli 1859 in Pontoise; † 3. Juni 1938 in Montbrison (Loire)) gilt als der erste systematische, wissenschaftliche Höhlenforscher. Der Jurist verbrachte häufig seine Urlaube in den südfranzösischen Causses, unfruchtbaren Karstplateaus.Im Sommer 1888 begann seine Karriere als Höhlenforscher mit der Erkundung der Abîme de Bramabiau und der Grotte de Dargilan bei Meyrueis die er detailliert beschrieb und kartografierte. Im Schmied Louis Armand aus Le Rozier fand er einen kongenialen Mitstreiter, mit dem er viele Ausrüstungsgestände entwickelte und herstellte.Begleitet durch einen Maler war er in der Lage, die Befahrungen zu dokumentieren und schrieb viele Bücher über die Höhlenforschung, die bald zu Bestsellern wurden. Bald hängte er seinen ungeliebten Beruf an den Nagel und lebte nur noch von der Höhlenforschung.Er erwarb eine Höhle in Südfrankreich und betrieb sie als Schauhöhle, hinzu kamen seine Bücher und verschiedene Gutachtertätigkeiten.So erkrankte er einmal sehr schwer an Wasser, welches er in einer Höhle trank. Als er viele Wochen später wieder gesund war, erforschte er die Höhle bachaufwärts und fand eine Doline, die als Abdeckerei benutzt wurde. Daraufhin erreichte er es, erstmals Karstgebiete als Wasserschutzgebiete in die französische Gesetzgebung aufnehmen zu lassen (Loi Martel, 1902). 1896 gelang es ihm, das insgesamt 1300 Meter lange Höhlensystem der Höhle Coves del Drac auf der Baleareninsel Mallorca gründlich zu erforschen und zu kartografieren. Finanzier der Forschung war Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator. Martel fand den riesigen, kristallklaren, konstant 20 °C warmen See tief im Höhleninneren. Dieser See wurde dann auch nach ihm Llac Martel benannt. Er ist 177 Meter lang, 40 Meter breit und rund 9 Meter tief. > de data from Internet Édouard Alfred Martel (ur. 1 lipca 1859 w Pontoise, zm. 3 czerwca 1938 w Garde k. Montbrison) – francuski speleolog. Badał jaskinie we Francji, W. Brytanii, Irlandii, na Kaukazie, Peloponezie, Majorce i w USA. W 1895 założył Francuskie Towarzystwo Speleologiczne. Napisał podstawowe prace z dziedziny speleologii, m.in. w 1898 opublikował La spéléologie ou science des cavernes. > pl data from Internet Italy# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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