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5196d27f77c237e8e3f327c533fa7af7 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet A funnel shaped closed depression (doline, sinkhole), 20 m in diameter and 7 m deep, gives access to a west facing, relatively small and wet cave with mud formations 18 m below the surface (1745 m asl). Water entering from an upstream sump in the north soon disappears into a downstream sump (cave plan »Perte 1« DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 46). SITUATION (after DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 45): The doline lies somewhere (location map without scale in DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 46) at an unspecified distance north-northwest of Pithoragarh (N29°35': E080°13') and was reached (note 1) by leaving the town north along a road past a cement factory for a place called Chandak. Here, the road was left for a path west past a leper station below a »col« (pass, ghat). The doline was found somewhere at the head of (dry?) valleys heading south-west towards the town of Pithoragarh (N29°35': E080°13': 1815 m), and sort of halfway between this »col« and an unidentified village called »Marth« (DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 45 text) or »Mardh« (DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 46 location map). CAVE LIFE: DUCLUZAUX (1993d: 45) and Gilles Rousson observed in the first days of March 1992 unspecified bats (Chiroptera). data from Internet 3097 data from Internet PITHORAGARH: CHANDAK 1 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-28T13:18:15.000Z data from Internet
c3f097d79389ec5501a9a8ea7f94ed03 fra data from Internet -2 data from Internet The »Patal Bhubaneshwar Mandir« (Sanskrit, Hindi for: Temple of the Subterranean Emperor) is a Hindu 'gupha' (literally 'cave' but more often the innermost sanctuary) but no cave, situated in the west of Gauhati (Guwahati 26°11'N: 91°44'E), on the very top of Nilochal hill (according to a sign-board 293 m asl), and near to large, closed circular water-tank erected some 400 m east of the –>Kamakhya temple but some 30 m or 40 m higher up. The focus of the sacred spot consists of a rectangular slab of rock advertised as the yoni (vulva) of the goddess is covered with vermilion powder and flowers in varying degrees of decomposition »in deference to her modesty« (LALOO, M 1999: 25). The circa 0.4 m by 0.7 m large slab is put down in the centre of a raised floor in a dark octagonal building without windows that is reached by a windowless corridor from an cave entrance hall without windows. NOT SEEN: Bhattacharyya, N.: History of the Sakta (Shakta) religion.- Page 142. CULTURAL HISTORY: »In the Kamakhya temple at Kamagiri [another name for Nilochal Hill], the central image of the goddess is a yoni carved in stone and smeared with red paste symbolising blood (N. Bhattacharyya, History of the Sakta religion: 142). Rituals are done at the temple each month to signify the Devi's menstruation« (KINSLEY D 1986 / 1987: 187). 1996: »The temple of Bhubaneshvari is situated at a distance of one quarters mile [400 m?] from the temple of Kamakhya. When pilgrims arrive there, they really forget everything of their earthly lives. The natural scenery of the place is so beautiful, that it charms and spell bounds men and discourages them to go back to their home« (SARMA, S K 1996: 30). 1999: »Crowning Nilachal Hill [–>Kamakhya Cave, Nilochal] is another, smaller Shakti temple dedicated to one of the nine aspects of the Goddess. Here the deity is represented by a red daubed slab of rock under a canopy in the dark, inner sunken chamber. The locals believed that the rock represent[s] the abdomen [more likely: the womb] of the Goddess. It is kept in the dark in deference to her modesty« (LALOO, M 1999: 25). 2002: »Other temples on the Neelachala hill include those of Tara, Bhairavi, Bhuvaneswari and Ghantakarna« (http://indiantemples.com/Assam/kamakhya.html accessed 2002.06.07). data from Internet 7482 data from Internet BHUBANESHWAR, Nilochal (Patal) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3862# TAKTOK (Caves at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-28T13:41:09.000Z data from Internet 1987-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
f5dab004abefdd83ee221557b84233cf fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: »Tom Phiong« (WHITE 1909: 117) or »Tumphiong« (WHITE 1910: 20) is neither shown on AMS sheet NG45-04 Phari Zong (U502 series, 1963 edition) nor in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 27 F3).NOTE 2: »Yangthang« (WHITE 1909: 117, 1910: 20) is indicated as »Yangtang« near N27°24': E089°16' on AMS sheet NG45-04 Phari Zong (U502 series, 1963 edition). NOTE 3: »Hah-chu« (WHITE 1909, 1910), »Ha Chhu« on the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 27 F4). NOTE 4: »Hah monastery« (WHITE 1910: 20), »Ha Dzong« on the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 27 F3). data from Internet 3041 data from Internet TOM PHIONG SUBTERRANEAN LAKE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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64d225fa618b5c189bee0fec8c5b4c67 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: »Adawa« (Glennie, E A 1946.08.01 Mss; Leakey, R D 1946 June: Bodhyar Pothole Map) and LEAKEY, R D (1955: 58] is indicated as »Udawan« near 30°45'10”N: 77°46'10”E: 2093 m (Everest 1830) on the ca. 1940 Survey of India toposheet 53-F/13 S2 (Four Inch to a Mile Forest Map series). NOTE 2: D.W.R. (Leakey, R D 1946.08.20 letter to Glennie, E A) Duke of Wellington's Regiment. data from Internet 7510 data from Internet BLASTED HOLE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4048# BIJASAN CAVE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4094# CHANDIKA WELL, Kacha Kanthi Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-25T11:40:30.000Z data from Internet 1840-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
03d5578a4b2eb461183b3c8c3d341638 fra data from Internet -4 data from Internet conglomerate data from Internet 2787 data from Internet AU PYAK PHUG Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4016# BHALDARIA (Cave at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4988# PERAYUR 2 (Cave at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-05-05T10:27:02.000Z data from Internet 1970-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
0e843f33e8e3db737ea00b6a72c6a9ce fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet A exsurgence cave, which emitted in December 1995 a »strong draught« (air current) and on 22nd February 2003 about 200 to 300 ltr/sec of water (H. D. Gebauer, personal estimation). SITUATION: The cave entrance lies at river level on the downstream corner of the resurgence pool (backed by a boulder pile) on the left (eastern) bank of the Chibe, and approximately 200 m upstream of –>Chibe Cave 1. CAVE DESCRIPTION: C. M. Smart and Antony 'Tony' Boycott reported an estimated 1.5 m wide and 30 m long, vadose cave passage of phreatic origin and tube-shaped in cross-section (note 1), along with an »oxbow« (bypass), which was felt to run along the base of the cliff, and was found to lead to boulder blockage (see –>Chibe Dobhakol 2). CAVE CLIMATE: C. M. Smart, A. Boycott and Surajit Roy noticed at an unspecified time on 8th December 1995 a »strong draught« (air current) issuing from gaps between boulders. CAVE LIFE: Larval stage of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae; in caver speak: "snot gobblers"). Antony 'Tony' Boycott observed pug marks of a cat near the cave entrance. data from Internet 7623 data from Internet CHIBE RONGKOL 1 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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e42d5e83412e3fe27f1547e9dd0ad89c fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: U Kiang Nongbah, the "rajah" or king (Syiem) of the Syntengs, is said to have used –> Kut Sutiang as a hideout in 1862-83. In 1860 a house tax was imposed in the Jaintia Hills and the Synteng people rose in open rebellion which was stamped out within four months. Scarcely, however, had the agitation subsided when an income tax was introduced. The total amount assessed was only Rupees 1'259 but this was enough to irritate people who had never been accustomed to pay anything but the lightest tribute to their own princes. In January 1862 a revolt began, and, though apparently crushed in four months, it broke out again, and it was not till November 1863 that the last of the leaders surrendered to the extent of the British resources (McKENZIE 1884: 241-242; IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, XV: 256; BAREH, H 1967: 111-233). NOTE 2: »In the seventies during our childhood days my parents owned a cloth shop at Yawmusiang market of Jowai« (MOHRMEN, H H 2012.06.12). »Adjacent to the Ïawmusiang market in between the office of the now Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council and the Office of the Deputy Commissioner Jaintia hills is a place known as Madan-Siat -thong (an archery ground) or Madan Kasari, where villagers compete with one another in the game of archery and Kyntiñ Mookhrah every market day« (MOHRMEN, H H 2012.10.15). NOTE 3: Mynser (25°55'N: 92°24'E) is indicated on AMS sheet NG46-10 Shillong (U502 series, 1959 edition) as a populated place above the banks of one Mynser Nadi, a tributary to the orographically right (northern) bank of the Um Khen (Khasi) and Barapani (Assamese) but misprinted as »Mynaer« (sic!) in the India Road Atlas, Eicher Goodearth (2006: 46 B2). NOTE 4: Shangpung 25°29'N: 92°21'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) is shown in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 46 B3) at about halfway on the 53 km long road from Jowai (25°27'N: 92°12'E) approximately east-northeast to Garampani (26°24'N: 93°52'E). AMS sheet NG46-10 Shillong (U502 series, 1959 edition) shows Shangpung in an area where the rivers »Thangskai Nadi« and »Um Karand« meet to form the »Um Ikrem« which seems to be the same as the »Umiurem river« (BAREH, H 1967 / 1997: 169). NOTE 5: Nongbah (25°32'N: 92°16'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) data from Internet 3090 data from Internet KIANG NANGBAH, Mynser (Cave of U) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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1bec05427faaaf30c4e159137cd4a0d8 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: »Budi« (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 118) or »Bhudi« (ATKINSON 1882-1886, 12: 157) is indicated as »Badhi« near N30°06'30”: E080°51' on AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi (U502 series, 1958 edition). data from Internet 7476 data from Internet BHUDI (Caves near) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4062# BUDA GAVI Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-24T23:26:32.000Z data from Internet 1991-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
2c3ba433786fb8416fb0a984ae93189f fra data from Internet 1 data from Internet NOTE 1: Neither this Kalyanpur nor Biladi is shown on AMS sheet NG44-14 Panna (1959 edition) or listed on nima.mil/geonames (accessed 16.11.2003) and in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006 index). NOTE 2: »Dharampur« (GUPTA, N P 1984) appears to be Dharampura 24°59'N: 80°26'E shown on the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 55 H1) about 20 km or 25 km north-east of Ajaigarh and 50 km (or so) north-east of Panna. NOTE 3: Ajaigarh (also: Ajaygar) near 24°54'N: 80°18'E (Everest 1830, IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, 5: 132) or 24°54'N: 80°16'E (WGS84 http://nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) on the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 55 H1). »Naushahr at N. base of the granite and sandstone rock on which is the famous Ajaigarh Fort (1344 ft.) (" unconquerable fort " or " Aja's fort "), fronted by Bihouta hill, which commands it. Ajaigarh Fort is 16 m. from Kalinjar, and, like that, is as old as the 9th century. The plateau is covered with exquisitely carved remains of Jain temples, some of them obscene and now inhabited by snakes and baboons.« (SMITH, G 1882: 318-319): data from Internet 7497 data from Internet KALYANPUR - BILADI SHELTER Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4030# NARAYANA GUDDA (Bhilla) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:11:41.000Z data from Internet 1984-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
b114130da6945e1043094f75d5a7a2c5 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: Berinag (Bering, Bherang N29°48': E080°04' nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) or N29°47': E080°04': 4500 or 5000 feet (circa 1425 ±150 m asl, AMS sheet NH44-10 Almora, U502 series, 1958 edition) between the valleys of the Sarju and Ram Ganga (Ramganga) rivers. data from Internet 7415 data from Internet BHADRAKALI RIVER TUNNEL Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3774# GOM KHARA DIGLAM Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-03T00:35:40.000Z data from Internet 2005-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
27d4feb4e2303cc03af10fc786010bcb fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet Unidentified »caves in the mountains most dreary and dark, inaccessible to the rays of the sun, cold, and of difficult access« reports the comparatively »ancient« (mediaeval?) Vahu Purana, a Sanskrit geography describing the area west of the mythical Mount Meru, from the »country called Kanan or Kanana« (ATKINSON 1882, 11 edited 1981, vol. 2, part 1: 295-296). DESCRIPTION: »The portion lying between the Pushpaka and Mahamegha mountains is as flat as the palm of the hand, devoid of trees and with very little water which is whitish. The soil is hard and tenacious and without grass. There are few animals and the few inhabitants have no fixed habitation. The whole country is called Kanan or Kanana. There are several large lakes, likewise great trees and larger groves called Kanta. There are caves here in the mountains most dreary and dark, inaccessible to the rays of the sun, cold, and of difficult access« (Vahu Purana in: ATKINSON 1882, 11 edited 1981, vol. 2, part 1: 295-296). IDENTITY 1882: The »country called Kanan or Kanana« (Vahu Purana) »can be no other than Bisahr, including Kunaor [note 1], the Kunu of the Tibetans and still celebrated for its vines, oranges [Citrus reticulate] and apricots. The inhabitants were called Kinnaras, hodie Kunets« (ATKINSON 1882). IDENTITY 2007: »Kanan or Kanana« (Vahu Purana) seems to be the populated place indicated as »Kanum« (N31°38': E078°27') on the »Hindustan - Tibet Road« (AMS sheet NH44-01 Chini, U502 series, 1956 edition) and as »Kanam« next to a symbol for monastery (India Road Atlas, Eicher Goodearth 2006: 6 D2) above »Spello« on the locally north-west (orographically right) bank of the Sutlej River. data from Internet 3102 data from Internet KANAN COUNTRY CAVES Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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ac780afdcd977c651fc8b1fd23310d83 fra data from Internet -4 data from Internet conglomerate data from Internet 2788 data from Internet PYAK CHE PHUG, Kyanka Chu Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-02T02:23:54.000Z data from Internet data from Internet false data from Internet
9a5be1d1782c72ba20ef0eae8fdb9f3d fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet The cave entrance to a pothole called »Krem Sata« of unknown depth, is said to be situated in an unexpected location west of the Shnongrim Ridge and in one of the rare occurrences of Lakadong Limestone (Lower Sylhet stage) of Lower Eocene age. ETYMOLOGY: SINGH, N (1906: 183-184) lists no Khasi word like "sata" as such (note 1) but the recorded (possibly corrupted) cave name "Krem Sata" may actually stand for Krem Sada (note 2), Krem U Jata (note 3), Krem Satap (note 4), or even Krem Sathe (note 5). SITUATION: At an unknown location somewhere at an unspecified distance along the road from the Sutnga I.B. (PWD Inspection Bungalow at N25°22'18”: E092°25'49”) towards the Jaintia Cement Works (N25°20'39”: E092°28'53") and possibly on the right-hand side ( (south or east?) of the road. CULTURAL HISTORY - human use: Human body disposal, either dead or alive: According to three young boys met near the Sutnga I.B. (1999.02.28), Krem Sata was (or still is) used to get rid of »criminals« (or so). data from Internet 3122 data from Internet SATA, Sutnga (Krem) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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77b24f920fdcee4e92949f2363359c73 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet A strange cave is said to be peculiar insofar as it is characterised by an intermittent cave entrance, which is »sometimes open and sometimes closed« (Vanlalruata 1991 personal communication). SITUATION: Somewhere near one village of »Beiri« (?) on the ridge bordering Myanmar (SLORCdesh, formerly Burma): It may be reached by a two days trek in an unspecified direction (between NNE and SSE) from Champhai town (note 1). CULTURAL HISTORY: The Mizo noun ”kawngka ding hawn” signifies »a door which slides open to the right of a person entering« (LORRAIN 1940: 115). data from Internet 7404 data from Internet BEIRI (Cave at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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2777c3cd706a85fdfa26023d516b8777 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: »Bhamani Dhaur« (SWIFT 1982: 186) or »Bhaman Dhaur« (DUCLUZAUX 1993d: 53) is indicated as »Bamani Dhaur (camping ground)« near N30°43': E079°36' on AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi (U502 series, 1958 edition). NOTE 2: Without having been anywhere near the site, DUCLUZAUX (1993d: 53) claims --of course without acknowledging his source of inspiration-- that the cave entrance is closed with a wall but probably wanted to say that it is partly walled-off: »Dans la vallée des fleurs, se trouve la grotte de Bhaman Dhaur dont l'entrée est fermée par un mur.« NOTE 3: Mid June to September or October is the best time to visit the 2 km wide and 5 km long "Valley of Flowers" (Bhiundar, Bhyundar, indicated as Bhiundhar near N30°42': E079°35' (AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi, 1958 edition): 3000 to 3500 m asl. To enter the national park you have to get a permit at the police post at Govindghat. No camping is allowed, because too many tourists wreck all the flowers, so you have to make a day trip from Ghangaria (3,50 m asl). NOTE 4: Gangria (Ghangaria, Ghangria), at an elevation of 3200 m asl (SWIFT 1982) or 3100 m asl (GRÖTZBACH 1994), is the only place in the vicinity where accommodation is found and starting point for the tourist destination Valley of Flowers and the Sikh gurudwara and place of pilgrimage Hemkund N30°41': E079°36' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003): 4330 m asl (GRÖTZBACH 1994). Available at Ghangaria »basic lodges, gurudwaras and a GMVN Tourist Bungalow with a dormi beds for Rs 170 and rooms for Rs 800. From there it is a 4 km walk to the Valley of Flowers. To get to Hemkund you leave the main path to the Valley of Flowers and take a path 4 km to the right« (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06). NOTE 5: The length of the trek along the bridle path between Govind Ghat and Gangria varies between 6 km (SWIFT 1982: 186), 12 km (GRÖTZBACH 1994: 190) and 15 km hard climb (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06) and 18 km (uttranchalpradesh.com accessed 2003.07.08). NOTE 6: On the road from Joshimath (N30°34': E079°34') to Badrinath (N30°44': E079°29') on AMS sheet NH44-05 (U502 series) liesGovind Ghat (Gobind Ghat), probably near N30°37': E079°35' (estimated) at an elevation of 1750 m asl (SWIFT 1982) or 1800 m asl (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06); along the road 19 km from Joshimath (uttranchalpradesh.com accessed 2003.07.08); 20 km from Joshimath (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06) and 10 km from Vishnuprayag, where the Dhauli Ganga joins the Alaknanda River; 25 km south of Badrinath (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06); 166 km from Srinagar (Gharwal), which itself lies 109 km from Rishikesh. NOTE 7: »There are two Hanuman Chattis, this one and another one by Yamunotri. This Hanuman Chatti is 27 km from Badrinath [N30°44': E079°29'] and 9 km from Pandukeswar [N30°39': E079°34']« (vegetarian-restaurants.net accessed 2005.10.06). data from Internet 7432 data from Internet BHAMANI DHAUR Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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df9670e49346a9af4fb7643b05ebfc53 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet Modified natural troglodyte caves (note 1) and man-made rock chambers (note 2), some excavated from the Pliocene (Siwalik) rocks (note 3), are found along the routes approaching and crossing over Khyber Pass (note 4). These caves were and probably still are used as troglodyte dwellings (note 5) which, however, were never systematically investigated. \nAFGHANISTAN side: Caves in the valley of the –>Barik Ab, Caves on the –>Karapah Road ( Murdar Dand - Gandawah), –>Landi Khana. \nPAKISTAN side (note 6): –>Babara Cave, –>Drazanda Cave, –>Gandao Cave, –>Janat Gul Kili Caves, Caves at –>Kadam, –>Khanakai Cave, –>Khatunai Cave, –>Mandati Cave, –>Manza Cave, –>Nari Caves; Cave of Lieut.-Col. –>Rattray (near Ali Masjid, reported by WOOD 1841: 159); –>Sangar Cave, –>Sar Khandai / Sarkhandai Cave, –>Shagai Cave, –>Shakar Tangi Caves, Shalkan Durmai Cave, –>Spinkai Cave, –>Tsaswakai Cave, –>Zerai Garai Cave. data from Internet 7279 data from Internet KHYBER PASS (Caves on the) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-13T00:04:30.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
c7f531857c87c8c8a1dba0d748009581 fra data from Internet 2 data from Internet A »cavern full of ice« (MUMM, A L 1909: 108-109 edited 2010: 51 after GRAHAM 1885) was found to contain a »true subterranean glacier« (William Woodman Graham in "Good Words" (note 1) after Emil Boss 1883 edited by MacLeod 1885). SITUATION: At an unidentified location somewhere in the valley of the Rishi Ganga (note 2), where the »mouth« (cave entrance) is said to have been seen »some 4000 feet above us« (note 3) on the way ascending to »… a very noble peak, nameless unfortunately, and only known by a number (A 21), as if it were a convict [note 4]. The peak is south-east of Dunagiri [note 5], and is of a very curious shape, but one fairly common in the Himalayas. It is built just like a wedge with a level top, perhaps a quarter of a mile long, whilst the eastern and western sides are slopes of 60 to 70 and of course utterly inaccessible. During the ascent to our sleeping-place [note 6], some 18,000 feet above the sea, we put up a great many of the beautiful snow-pheasant [note 7] called 'monal' in India, and Impeyan pheasant in England; so many were there that we called our peak Mount Monal« (GRAHAM 1885 in MUMM 1909: 107-108 edited 2010: 51). data from Internet 7446 data from Internet MONAL (Cave on Mount) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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46de623fdad8774a7207e93e1437aeee fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: Bhinyapura (or so) is not listed on nima.mil/geonames (accessed 16.11.2003). NOTE 2: Obaidullahganj (India Road Atlas, Eicher Goodearth 2006: 71 E1) is positioned as Ubaidullaganj and Ubaidullahganj at N22°59': E077°36' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003). data from Internet 7464 data from Internet BHINYAPURA SHELTERS Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:18:28.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
3608# Ellora Caves Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-14T23:42:57.000Z data from Internet 1954-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
8c08dec8619f0f308a3fdce304deae97 fra data from Internet 2 data from Internet A group of modified natural caves or man-made rock-cut chambers (cave dwelling) used for monastic troglodyte purposes (note 1). IDENTITY: Compare –>Lama Agu Tungpa Phug (Shergol) and –>Padmasambhava Phug (Urgyan Dzong). CULTURAL HISTORY - human use: One of the "caves" at Urgyan Dzong is sacred to Padmasambhava, who is said to have meditated here. SITUATION 2009: »… Shargol [sic!]Gompa is set almost entirely into a cliffside. The site is distantly visible from the Leh - Kargil road around 5 km west of Mulbekh, but accessed by a 1.6 km unpaved road that branches off near km236. Before climbing the short, steep approach path request the key from the new Dukhang (Lowe Monastery)« (LONELY PLANET, India 2009: 296). SITUATION 1999: »Shergol« (sic!) lies 7 km (LONELY PLANET 1999: 378; LONELY PLANET, North India 2001: 395) along the road from Mulbekh (N34°23': E76°22') north-west to Kargil (N34°34': E76°06'). SITUATION 1978: At the Tibetan Buddhist monastery Urgyan Dzong, which lies at a walking distance of 3 hours from »Shergol (Lord of the Morning Star)« (HIRSCHBERG 1978: 105, 1987: 92-93). CAVE DESCRIPTION 2001: »Shergol … meaning 'Lord of the Morning Star” … has a tiny cave gompa perched half way up the steep, eastern slope of the mountain …« (LONELY PLANET, India 2001: 395).CAVE DESCRIPTION 1863: »Leaving Shergol, we entered a curious valley with rocks of concrete standing out like towers and fortifications, and on the summits of these again, airy-looking habitations with red streaks adorning them, and entered, as that at Shergol, by holes in the face of the rock. These were, or had been, the abodes of the Lamas; numbers of them now however, as well as the mud settlements at their feet, appeared in ruins, and gave no sign of habitation, beyond having about them a number of little flags stuck on long poles, which fluttered about in the breeze. According to the account of our interpreter, which had to pass from Thibetian into Hindostanee before it could clothe itself in English, the cause of this dilapidation was the state of wealth and ambition at which the Lamas had arrived, and the consequent interposition of Gulab Singh to take down their pride and ease them of a little of their wealth, both of which he accomplished in the style to which he was so partial, by slaughtering some hundreds of them and reducing their airy habitations to ruins« (KNIGHT, W H 1863 Diary: 1860 August 6). data from Internet 3116 data from Internet URGYAN DZONG CAVES Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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8ebbb9e1de586b46fee8854d81ced285 fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet NOTE 1: »On the hill above the village Bhuili is an old ruined fort and a signal tower. There is also a cave, locally called Kho, in the hill which [the cave?] contains two illegible inscriptions on the rock inside« (Glennie, Edward Aubrey (s.a. circa 1948 Mss: Preliminary Record; GLENNIE 1959: 31 after DRAKE BROCKMANN 1911 District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh , volume XXVII: Mirzapore District, page 281). NOTE 2: Bhuili is not listed on nima.mil/geonames (accessed 16.11.2003) but shown in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 40 C5). IMPERIAL GAZETTEER (1907-1909) has Bhuili village in a pargana of the same name in Chunar tahsil, which covers the area between N24°27': E082°42' and N25°15': E083°12' (Everest 1830). NOTE 3: BUCHANAN, later: HAMILTON (1926: 152) had passed on 25th February 1812 a place called »Bahuli« but made no mention of a cave. NOTE 4: Chunar N25°08': E082°54' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003), on AMS sheet NG44-12 Banaras (U502 series, 1961 edition) and on India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006) map 40 B5. data from Internet 7479 data from Internet BHUILI KHO Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:37:27.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
e0cbdc02f595212aa470d71d8685a444 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: The town of Bhandak is positioned at N20°07': E079°07' (Everest 1830, IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, 10: 19) and at N20°06': E079°07' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) on AMS sheet NF44-13 Wardha (U502 series, 1957 edition) in Warora tahsil, Chandrapur (Chanda) district. data from Internet 7491 data from Internet BIJASAN CAVE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:44:38.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
5665fca302fa6d7c11ad1adc79285a98 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet A sacred cave in a limestone rock near Li-Chiang (N27°32': E100°07') is used as troglodyte hermitage by an incarnation of the legendary, circa 8th cenutry Shi-lo-mi-wu (gshen rabs mi bo). Bon rites are still (in 1947) performed at the frequently visited pilgrimage site (HUMMEL 1957: 630 after ROCK 1947, 1: 267, illus. 140). data from Internet 7273 data from Internet Sa Ddo Phug Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-12T23:29:51.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
ef126fbf0192e2c12bfef371d3ca7d08 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: Barkachhar Pahar 22°29'25”N: 78°24'10”E: 1108 m (Everest 1830). NOTE 2: Jaistambha, also: Jai Stambh (vijaya stambha, Hindi, victory pllar) near 22°28'26”N: 78°26'10”E: 1060 m (Everest 1830, Survey of India sheet 55-J/07 edition 1976; Gebauer, H D 2000.12.29 GPS Garmin 12).NOTE 3: Hospital 22°28'31"N: 78°25'43”E (Everest 1830). NOTE 4: Twynham Pool, saffronised Rajyapal Sur, 22°28'39”N: 78°25'17”E (Everest 1830). data from Internet 7620 data from Internet CHHOTA MAHADEO GUFA Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4029# HUSSEIN - DOSHI GUFA Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:10:42.000Z data from Internet 2001-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
3598# Sa Ddo Phug Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-12T23:29:28.000Z data from Internet 1957-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
0b391377697f5168ea5d4553b221903f fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet »Mr Jest [probably Corneille Jest] again revealed … a cave with two entrances along the pilgrimage trail [from an unspecified starting point] to Mongar district [note 1], Eastern Bhutan« (STEIN, R A 1988: 13 note 37).\n\nNOTE 1: The headquarters of the Mongar dzongkhag or »Mongar district« (STEIN 1988: 13 note 37) is the »Mongar Dzong« indicated near N27°16': E091°12' in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 28 C3) and on AMS sheet NG46-01 Tongsa Dzong (U502 series, 1960 edition). data from Internet 3014 data from Internet MONGAR (Stein 1988) (Cave near) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4075# BUKPUI, Thanlon Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-24T23:38:18.000Z data from Internet 1997-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
1b497d88701e4f6abf49a95273106ffc fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: Old South Lungrang 22°43'46.1”N: 92°39'01.9”E: 650 m (Gebauer, GPS Garmin 12) and New South Lungrang 22°44'04.0”N: 92°38'38.1”E: 750 m (Gebauer, GPS Garmin 12). NOTE 2: W. Rotla 22°50'N: 92°37'E (RALTE, C.W. undated circa 1970: Mizoram leh a Chhevvêl). data from Internet 3121 data from Internet BAK PUK, South Lungrang Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4043# BHUBANESHWAR, Nilochal (Patal) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T12:39:59.000Z data from Internet 1986-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
ddf7277b34af0b7486f37a9ca7b8bff8 fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet »Rock Shelter 3 is located to the right of Rock Shelter 2 about 15 m away facing east. It measures 15 m x 10 m. The front portion of this isolated boulder protrudes outwards to provide a shaded area of 2 m. The hollow portion of the rock contains paintings in red ochre. These are in good state of preservation. They include 2 figures of deer, 5 humped bulls and a cow (?), hand prints and a schematic human figure« (CHANDRAMOULI 1991: 72). data from Internet 7528 data from Internet BUDAGAVI SHELTER 3 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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1aad84dcd46bf8a7f053033a2bb29b27 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: The »both forms« (FOOTE 1884b: 201) of speleothems include 1st) stalagmites, 2nd) stalactites, and 3rd) stalagnates.NOTE 2: »The thickness of the sediments in the Billa Surgam group appears to be more than 10 m as evidenced by the excavations of Henry Bruce Foote, who dug to a depth of 9.7 m in the Cathedral Cave and to 9.0 m in the Charnel House Cave, without touching the bottom in either cave« (MURTY 1974: 196). data from Internet 7565 data from Internet BILLA SURGAM 3: Cathedral Cave Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-24T23:53:40.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
4011# BHAIRAVA, Karjat - Dhak (Cave of) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-23T11:38:38.000Z data from Internet 1962-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
84da9413381f2651f8c722d0c3df2558 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet The "Goldsmith's Source" or "Goldsmith's Cave" (note 1) is 7 m wide rock shelter, about 5 m deep, characterised by a lowering ceiling, that soon turns into a obstacle when investigating. The floor was very dry in late April 1958 and criss-crossed with mud-cracks indicating a previous presence of water. data from Internet 7267 data from Internet ZARGARAN, Farah: Kuh-e Bashto (Ghar) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-12T20:10:20.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
0edbf279f7309116d0b6f29b00cf47a3 fra data from Internet 2 data from Internet An unspecified, relatively small »cave« is said to exist (LAUF 1972b: 90) beneath an inconspicuous shrine of the Dakini Vajravarahi, which has been erected in the back of the monastery »Zlum-rste lha-khang« (note 1). IDENTITY: The Vajravarahi cave at the Lumtse Lakhang (zLum-rste Lka-khang) might be identical with –>Chumo Phug, sPa gro. SITUATION: North of Paro town (note 2) a bridge across the To Chhu, a tributary to Paro river (sPa gro Chhu), leads to the range of Tak Tsang (sTag-tshan), which rises from the plain at the confluence (chhu 'joms). On the first scarp stands the monastery. CULTURAL HISTORY - religious folklore: A nine headed turtle, which represents a mischievious and sickening demon, lives in this cave but is currently banned by magic (LAUF 1972b: 90). data from Internet 3044 data from Internet ZLUM rTSE PHUG Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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accb42dde691b41991e6d7b0fc54e0ba fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet NOTE 1: ka wah (Khasi, noun) a stream, a river (SINGH, N 1906: 244); a mountain stream (ALLEN, W J 1858: 61), binomial: ka wah - ka um (SINGH, N 1906: 244). long (Khasi, verb) is, to exist, to become (SINGH, N 1906: 118); to be, become, betide (SINGH, N 1920: 39, 40, 44). u máw long (Khasi, noun) a big stone or rock (SINGH, N 1906: 130); crag, rock (SINGH, N 1920: 100, 444).u soh long (Khasi, noun), a lemon (SINGH, N 1906: 208; BAZELY 1992: 34). NOTE 2: Wahlong, literally: Big Stream (of water), is the same as »Wolong« (Major Bivar in: MEDLICOTT, H B 1865: 391 table) and »Wullong« (MEDLICOTT, H B 1865: 421). In November 1995 I recorded at a populated place called Wahlong the GPS position (±150 m) 25°12'29”N: 91°43'25”E : circa (±200 m) 800 m asl (WGS84 modified from 25°12'27”N: 91°43'35”E Everest 1830, Gebauer, H D undated 1995 November unstable 4-channel GPS Garmin 4) where the Survey of India sheets 78-O/12 indicate a village called »Mawthangsokkhyllum« (edition 1912) or »Mawthangsok Khyllum« (edition 1937), apparently a contraction of "maw" (stone) + "thang" (to burn, deflagrate, enkindle, fire, light) + "soh khyllum" »a sour fruit resembling a guava« (SINGH, N 1906: 207). data from Internet 3054 data from Internet MAWPUN (Krem) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-10T00:40:18.000Z data from Internet
597132ac9a7fceeb2993ba5e543401a5 fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet Unspecified »rock shelters« (or caves?) at Bharaspati Kund contain unspecified rock art (GUPTA, N P 1984: 201 after Indian Archaeology: A Review (1961-62 or 1962-63). SITUATION: Somewhere at certain »Bharaspati Kund« (note 1) near a place called »Brijpur« (note 2), which lies on the bank of a certain »Baghan River« (note 3) and at unspecified distances in an unspecified direction from Panna (N24°43': E080°12') via one »Pahari« (note 4) to a place called »Kahari« (note 5). data from Internet 7437 data from Internet BHARASPATI KUND SHELTERS Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3976# BAZAR SHELTER Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-21T19:51:18.000Z data from Internet 1969-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
005d1db6150739057af74c3a90f85e4c fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet Two vertical caves entrances, each about 7.5 m deep, are situated »about 100 yards from these [–>Billa Surgam caves, but] at a higher elevation. There is a small 25 feet 'U' shaped cave without any side passages. One has to get in by a rope climb in the one end and get up likewise from the other end« (M Narayana Reddy 1996.10.15 Mss). data from Internet 7503 data from Internet BILLA SURGAM: U-SHAPED CAVE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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8c2822e811eabf090bdbf7e107efc5dd fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: Burhanpur tahsil covers parts of the area between N21°05': E75°57' and N21°37': E76°48' (IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, 9: 103). NOTE 2: Chandni town N21°26': E076°21' (WGS84) and Chandni railway station N21°25': E076°20' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 70 B5). data from Internet 7587 data from Internet CHANDIGARH SHELTER Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-25T11:41:45.000Z data from Internet data from Internet
e58edaf5774dedc3c5c0cdf58ecb9cb5 fra data from Internet -2 data from Internet A relatively small, man-made rock-cut chamber (troglodyte cave temple), which is not only said to measure »about five feet square« (RAPER 1812: 458) but also to be »very narrow« (ELIADE 1996: 316, 1998: 316), was said to have been inhabited by a »fakir« (RAPER 1810: 458; 1812: 458) or saddhu during the annual mela (fair) at Haridwar (note 1). ETYMOLOGY: The Sanskrit "ghora" (literally: frightful, disagreeable) is not only the word for a horse but also the name of a son of Vayu, the god of the wind; presiding deity of the air; allegorically representing power; a Vidarbhan king; the higher nature of man; an epithet of Shiva. »Bhíma Ghórá … [it] is said, that Bhima was posted here, to prevent the river [Ganges] from taking another course. … they pretend it [the rock chamber] was occasioned by a kick from the horse on which Bhima [note 2] was mounted« (RAPER 1812: 458). SITUATION: »Bhíma Ghórá« (RAPER 1810: 458; 1812: 458), »Bhimgoda« (OLDHAM, R D 1884: 166), indicated as »Bhimgogda 476« (metres above sea level) on the Survey of India sheet 53-K/01 (edition 1972), »situated to the N. W. of the town [note 2]; and the road to it lies over the mountain contiguous to Harca-Pairì« or Har-ki Pairi (note 3): »It is in a small recess of the mountain, which is a perpendicular solid rock, about three hundred and fifty feet [107 m] in height … immediately above the bath [Har-ki Pairi], about twelve feet from the ground« (RAPER 1810: 458; 1812: 458). SITUATION 1930: The cave is reached by following the road which runs from Haridwar initially along the river (Ganges), later across a mountain and via Rishikesh (about 18 km approximately north of Haridwar) towards Dehra Dun. The entrance itself lies high up on a mountain and had been reached (in 1930 ±1) by a flight of iron stairs (ELIADE 1996: 316, 1998: 316). SITUATION 1828: On a »rocky summit of the hill, over the lake« in the vicinity of the bungalow at »Hurdwar« (Haridwar), from where the »… road into the valley of the Dhoon [Dehra Dun] is a very fine one, cut over the river in the bosom of the hills, and built up with masonry on the outward side. Above it is a prettily-situated bungalow, which commands a magnificent view of the winding river, and the hills around it. At the end of this pass, and just beneath the hill, stands a large lake, by the banks of which there is a small pagoda. It is very retired and pretty …« (SKINNER 1832, 1: 189). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1828: »In the height of the fair at Hurdwar« Captain Thomas Skinner (1840? - 1843) »… observed a small door, cut into the rocky summit of the hill, over the lake, and about twenty feet above it, to which many people were ascending, by ladders fastened at its threshold. Garlands of flowers hung around it, and an aromatic smell on approaching it, gave intelligence of some dark mystery being performed within it. It was a sanctuary of the god of fruitfulness; and many wives were engaged in imploring the blessing of progeny. I did not venture to intrude, on discovering to whom it was sacred; and indeed my near approach seemed to cause some uneasiness among those who waited around it« (SKINNER 1832, 1: 189-190). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1810: »Bhìm Ghórá« has not only been identified as an »… artificial excavation in the rock« but also as a »cave is about five feet [1.5 m] square … Ladders are planted for the convenience of the curious, who may be desirous of convincing themselves of the powers which this horse was reported to possess« (RAPER 1810: 458; 1812: 458). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1996: Visitors are not allowed to have a look (darshan) at the temple erected in a kind "cave" (note 4), which is said to have been excavated in an un-artistic manner, very narrow and devoid of noteworthy pictures (ELIADE 1996: 316, 1998). CULTURAL HISTORY - Cave legend: Bhima, one of the Pandava brothers (the five sons of Pandu: Yudhi-sthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Saha-deva), personalities in the Mahabharata, is said to have been posted here to prevent the Alaknanda river from taking a different course. data from Internet 7456 data from Internet BHIMA GHORA Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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5a50206cb9f4ae5c645670eeaff5059c fra data from Internet -3 data from Internet Limestone data from Internet 2822 data from Internet JALAPHET, 2nd (Cave at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-28T13:52:49.000Z data from Internet data from Internet false data from Internet
730d75527b12da6cdf3b96fdc6a4937c fra data from Internet 1 data from Internet A blowing cave (emitting wind, air current, draught) is said to be situated (note 1) on the summit of the hill Bhrigutunga, which is named after the Rishi Bhrigu (note 2). ETYMOLOGY: The Sanskrit "brighu" (in English: bright) is 1. the planet Venus; 2. a race of beings described in the Rig-Veda as cherishing the fire brought to them "by the wind" (note 3), or as kindling fire from the "aranis" -- the two pieces of wood used in producing, by attrition, the sacred fire; 3. that one of the ten Maharishis from whom these beings descended. SITUATION: At an unidentified location somewhere near a place called Pokhri (note 4), which seems to lie at linear distances of about 15 km north-west of Gangolihat (N29°40': E080°03': 1750 m asl) and approximately 30 km north-east of Almora (N29°37': E079°40': 1650 m asl) in the administrative subdivision »patti Bherang« (note 5). data from Internet 7469 data from Internet BHRIGU, Bhrigutunga - Pokhri (Cave of) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4112# CHIBE CAVE 3 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3856# TAMIA SHELTERS Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3603# Nishapur Turquoise Mines Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2015-12-13T00:08:53.000Z data from Internet 1881-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
75201eb4f44c16c7c4cfaeceea38fd62 fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet An apparently substantial cave with two vertical and one horizontal cave entrance in the Maradeo / Mandadeo are somewhere north-east of –>Pachmarhi. SITUATION: Possibly indicated near (±250 m) 22°29'55”N: 78°28'35”E: circa (±20 m) 920 m (Everest 1830) and close to the upper margin of Survey of India sheet 55-J/07 (1976 edition) . See also –>Bania Beri (Sambourne Caves) in the same area. APPROACH: »The Catacombs.– To reach these caves go straight on along the path to the Sambourne Caves and about 1/2 mile [some 800 m] on downhill. The first indicationes of the caves are two large round holes in the ground on the left hand side. These are the sky lights and called Jane's Folly. After 50 yards the path turns to the left and goes down a rather steep incline in a semi-circle right to the mouth of the caves. … The Catacombs should be easily found, once Sambourne Caves have been reached« (Glennie, E A circa 1948 s.a. Mss "Preliminary record" after GUIDE TO PACHMARHI 1936). CAVE DESCRIPTION: »… two large round holes in the ground on the left hand side … are the sky lights and called Jane's Folly … To explore the caves one must have some form of artificial light, preferably an electric torch. The first cave leads into a second one on the same level; the ascend to the other caves has to be climbed« (Glennie, E A circa 1948 s.a. Mss "Preliminary record" after GUIDE TO PACHMARHI 1936). data from Internet 7563 data from Internet CATACOMBS CAVE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4088# MOILA CEDAR POT Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-25T00:18:42.000Z data from Internet 1952-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
74adc9237a7b57f13b63aeaf7730c0ad fra data from Internet -11 data from Internet rmations. Inside, it is mystical and dark with incandescent glowing points aided strategically placed artificial lighting. The stalactites and stalagmites assume impossible shapes and were named after the form they take, from revered Hindu gods and goddesses and divine creatures to Mother Mary« (DE 2007: 214 with upside down colour photograph on page 215). CAVE DESCRIPTION 2007c: incredibletourism.com/andhra-pradesh-travel (accessed 2007.12.14) draws the attention of nerds with a taste for projecting private mind frames to »… several interesting structures like a mushroom, a temple, a mosque, a church and many more« which have been shaped into forms resembling those of calcite formations. CAVE DESCRIPTION 2011: »… the million-year-old limestone Borra Caves« (LONELY PLANET, India 2011: 913). CAVE DESCRIPTION 2014: »The Belum and Bora Caves of Andhra Pradesh form exemplary karst features of great research importance to earth and archeological sciences, besides being attractive tourist destinations. These caves were formed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks (such as limestones and dolomites) through the action of groundwater. This process has contributed to the creation of a variety of surface and sub-surface features. The karstic features in and around these caves include karren, sinkholes, dolines, disappearing streams and karst springs. Sub-surface features include large caves with impressive speleothems (stalagmites and stalactites). These karstic features probably developed during more moist periods in the past. Subsequent change in climate to semi-aridity likely reduced the rate of dissolution of the carbonate to the currently observed rates« (NARAYANA, A C, YADAVA, Madhusudan G; DAR, Faruq Ahmed & RAMESH, R 2014: 189). ARCHAEOLOGY: The works of an unspecified KRISHNASWAMI (perhaps V D ?) need to be identified and traced, read and eventually understood because a certain »Krishnaswami has also taken up cave exploration in the limestone areas of the Araku valley in the Visakhapatnam district, for probably occupation sites by early man« (SEN, Dharani 1953: 186). PRAKASH P Vijaya, RATH Alok & RAO S Krishna (1995) excavated and collected stone age tools (lithic implements) in an unspecified association with the Borra Cave, applied remarkable and challenging outbursts of peculiarly administered geomorphological terminology, and ended up reporting nothing less than »a Middle Paleolithic scraper industry.« BASKAR et al. (2007: 351) simply state that »The caves have an archaeological importance due to the discovery of some Palaeolithic implements« without revealing their source of inspiration. CULTURAL HISTORY - Cave legend: Somebody (no name mentioned) once created in the olden times a tale according to which »Borra cave was first discovered by William King George [sic! Dr. William King] of the Geological Survey of India in the year 1807 [sic! 1882]. Before King George discovered the cave the story goes that a cowherd found that one of his cows had fallen down a gaping hole in the earth and when he went into the cave to retrieve the cow he found formations in the cave akin to shiva lingas nearby and associated the survival of the cow to the shiva lingas hence started to worship them. Later on King George discovered the Borra cave and revealed its presence to the world« (SRINIVASULU & SRINIVASULU 2003: 4). HUMAN USE: Borra Cave had been of religious importance to tribals and was turned into a Hindu temple cave sacred to Shiva (note 14). In the early 1990ies, somebody had successfully talked decision makers of the Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (APTDC) into developing and managing the Borra Cave as a show cave producing the sight of »natural formations« a.k.a. »interesting structures« (note 15). The APDC illuminates the cave with »mercury, sodium vapor and halogen lamps, 63 in all« (SRINIVASULU & SRINIVASULU 2003: 4) and this gaudy coloured artificial illumination is believed by some to »make the interior of the caves colourful and spectacular. November- December would be the ideal time to visit the caves. There are mica mines in and around this village and it is believed that there are immense possibilities of mining precious stones like rubies« (BASKAR et al 2007). CAVE CLIMATE: SRINIVASULU & SRINIVASULU (2004: 4-5) measured »Light intensity, temperature and relative humidity … at different points in all the levels to ascertain the ill effects of illumination and other human induced activities to the cave environment and the biota therein. A significant variation was noted with respect to light intensity in the twilight, threshold and the dark zones. It varied between between no light, generator-powered lights or the AC powered lights showing that illumination of any kind is detrimental to the cave environment and the biota therein. Significant variations were noted with respect to temperature between no light and different light conditions in all the levels. In the twilight to dark zones when compared to the entrance zone significant variations in temperature were noted under different illuminated conditions. A significant variation in relative humidity was seen in different illuminated conditions at different time periods. The cave authorities put on lights for the benefit oftourists which results in a significant decrease in humidity. This is harmful for the sensitive speleothems – the stalactites and stalagmites, which have taken millions of years to form are subjected to this and other such disturbance, such as increase in temperature. The increase in temperature results from bright light ranging from 18 W to 400 W and unrestricted number of tourists who may visit the cave in a given period of time. The tourists start pouring in from 10.00 a.m. onwards, and so the lights are put on at times even an hour or so before. This leads to decrease in humidity levels, coupled with increase in temperature. We could not do any studies on other fauna of the cave due to paucity of time however we found that the bats dispersed further into the recesses of the cave i.e. the dark zone areas wherever there was no illumination of any kind as against the clumping behaviour they exhibited in bright light conditions. Same was the case with the Heteropoda spp. and the cave crickets that could be heard and were also detected dispersed in many parts of the dark zone in non-illuminated conditions. However with increasing human disturbance and illumination they became concentrated only near the spring of the Gosthani river.« BASKAR et al. (2007: 351) report from an unspecified location somewhere in the »Araku Hills« (Ananthagiri?) a mean annual temperature of 25°C and an annual rainfall of 950 mm »mostly coming from the north-east monsoon« and later on had the impression »The average [sic!] temperature of the inner cave wall was approximately 16°C« measured without specified method at an unknown hour of an undated day. CAVE LIFE: In January 1997 A. Abele and H.D. Gebauer noticed lots of unspecified bats (Chiroptera) but SRINIVASULU & SRINIVASULU (2003: 5) made a more systematic biospeleological survey during the fortnight between 2003.03.02 and 16: »During the study period, seven species of bats were encountered of which five species could be identified. They were Rousettus leschenaulti [Desmarest 1820], the Fulvous Fruit Bat (2500 to 3000 individuals) found to occupy the dome in the threshold zone; Eonycteris spelaea, the Dawn Bat (200 to 300 individuals) observed along with the Fulvous Fruit Bat and also dispersed in the dark zone; Rhinopoma hardwickii, the Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat, observed on the ceiling at the entrance and at the Gostahni gorge area; Taphozous melanopogon, the Black-bearded Tomb Bat, majority observed near the sinkholes and also the ceiling at the entrance level of the cave; and Rhinolophus lepidus, Blyth’s Horseshoe Bat (1 to 5 individuals), observed only in the dark zone. Of the two unidentified species, one probably belongs to genus Hipposideros and another to family Vespertilionidae. The light-tolerant hardy species namely Rhinopoma hardwickii and Taphozous melanopogon did not show any changes in behaviour under illuminated conditions. However, with relative increase in the light intensity and in temperature the behaviour of the bats found in the twilight to dark zones was altered as they exhibited clumping behaviour and increased agitation leading to the death of young falling down from the nursing colonies. … Other fauna encountered in the cave were spiders (Heteropoda spp.), Cave Cricket (unidentified spp.) that were found in the dark zone; The Forest Calotes, Calotes rouxii; the Bark Gecko, Hemidactylus leschenaultii and numerous Rhesus Macaques, Macaca mulatta were encountered near the cave entrance.« CHAKRABORTY, S et al. (2004) are said to report the presence of the horseshoe bats (Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart 1850) from the »Borra caves« (KAUR, Harpreet et al. 2011). SRINIVASULU B & SRINIVASULU C (2004) studied roost site characteristics of bats of Borra Caves (note 16). SRINIVASULU et al. (2005: 2) report from »Borra Caves« not only the Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat or Rhinopoma hardwickei Gray 1831 (note 17) but also the Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon Temminck 1841 (note 18). BASKARA et al (2007: 352) draw the attention to »mucus-like biofilms [algae?] which are thick orange [coloured] microbial mats (2.5–3 cm thick) with patches of yellow biofilms extending 3 m from the aphotic deep cave orifice were seen floating on the spring waters [colour photograph on page figure 2d]. The fauna in the caves were predominantly bats and bat guano deposits were observed. The flora consisted of mosses and brown-to-green algae.« SRINIVASULU B & SRINIVASULU C (2005b) studied the diet of the black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogon Temminck 1841 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) with the help faecal pellet samples procured from individuals mist netted (2nd to 16th March 2003) at »Borra Caves« (forest area) and from a semi-urban area at northern Secunderabad (Ranga Reddy district, 18th March to 2nd April 2003): »Representatives of 11 insect orders and spiders (Araneidae) contributed to the diet. Forest bats fed on 1-9 insect orders and araneids indicating opportunistic feeding behaviour, while the semi-urban bats fed on 3-8 insect orders and araneids indicating selective feeding behaviour. Forest bats fed predominantly on Coleoptera, Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Odonata and Araneidae, while the semi-urban bats preferred Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera, Odonata, Hemiptera, Araneidae and Homoptera.« RANGA REDDY, SHAIK & VENKATESWARA RAO (2014) give a taxonomical description of Habrobathynella borranensis n. sp. (Crustacea: Syncarida: Bathynellaceae: Parabathynellidae) collected from »the Borra Caves … The specimens (one male, two females, and two juveniles) studied were sorted from core samples collected near the edges of a lentic pool of one of the inner chambers of the Borra Caves near Visakhapatnam. A rigid PVC tube (length 70 cm, diameter 11 cm) was used for coring. The cores, taken from the sediment surface to a depth of 5 to 8 cm, were pooled in a bucket and stirred well with the habitat water. The supernatant was filtered through bolting-silk plankton net (mesh size 70 µm), and the filtrate fixed in 5% formalin. Incidentally, two good specimens of the new species along with a scolopendromorph centipede were obtained when the sand accumulated in a water bottle abandoned by a tourist in a cave pool was treated as above. Specimens were sorted into 70% alcohol and subsequently transferred into glycerol. Dissection was carried out in glycerol …« data from Internet 2529 data from Internet Borra Caves Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4056# PENDA POT 1 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-24T15:11:36.000Z data from Internet 1995-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
e462140ec1c3a391e8ef116cfa19febe fra data from Internet -3 data from Internet limestone data from Internet 2784 data from Internet ASP (Ghar i) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4024# BHATGAON BLEBBY CAVE Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3768# AU PYAK PHUG Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4070# BUDHA AMARNATH, Ramban: Makarkot Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-03-24T23:32:53.000Z data from Internet 1973-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
298039e4dcb0eeb210588a7baad31c37 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet Man-made »cave temples« (rock-cut chambers used for religious purposes) cut from quartzite reported DUTT (1981: 1, figure 2 opposite page 2) from a certain Bhairavakonda, a hill at an unspecified location somewhere in Prakasan district. data from Internet 7420 data from Internet BHAIRAVAKONDA CAVES Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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37996# 2229# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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368f6bd78479e947fc5b03c9db3e06b8 fra data from Internet 2 data from Internet Two successive collapse chambers are suspected to have formed when the underlying –>Chibe Rongkol 1 collapsed. The rectangular, almost square entrance (2.6 m wide, 2.4 m high) leads to a descend across steeply inclined loose sand into an oval shaped collapse chamber (up to 6 m wide, 4 m high, 24 m long) exclusively developed in marly Kopili Alternations. In the north-eastern end, 24 m from the entrance, a 'gate' (3 m wide and 1 m high) gives access to a second steep descent (-7 m) into a lower chamber (up to 6 m high) characterised by an ocean of bat piss, sorry: lake (up to 8 m wide, of swimming depth, perhaps 20 m long) with a possible (unexplored) rift passage arriving from the north-east (030°). SITUATION: In the back of the amphitheater shaped cliff on the eastern (orographically left) bank of the Chibe River, and about 10 m vertically above –>Chibe Rongkol. POSITION: The cave entrance lies approximately 60m on a bearing of 035° from N25°21'15.7": E090°38'05.7" corresponding to about N25°21'18”: E090°38'07”. PROSPECTS: Bat guano and urine need to be negotiated to check possible continuations beyond the pool. CAVE LIFE: Near the entrance bird of prey (in Garo something like "siar") and beyond the 'gate' about 8 square metres of densely packed fruit bats (Chiroptera) —several thousands. data from Internet 7622 data from Internet CHIBE RONGKOL 2 Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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bdd30ab2eac4adad083203f8a4dd3131 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet An unspecified »Cave« (no name mentioned) at the southern foot of the hill called Udayagiri shows STRASSER (1991 map) without further notice in the text. data from Internet 3354 data from Internet AA CAVE, Udaya Giri (Cave on the) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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f87d1c5f0edcf2f2cd7bc95dd1f29b7c fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet The (natural?) temple cave (or man-made cave temple?) sacred to Bhairava »is about 6 m long, 5 m wide and 3 m high. A small temple dedicated to Bhairava is erected inside the cave chamber« (REDDY & GEBAUER 1988: 107). ETYMOLOGY: Bhairava, literally »The Terrible«, is the eighth incarnation of Shiva in his demonic form. SITUATION: In the Nallamalla range, at a travelling distance of about 50 km approximately south-east from Nandyal (N15°29': E78°29'), and »at a distance of 100 m away and in front of the famous Ahobilam temple [–>Pedda Ahobilam], some 20 m above the bottom of a running brook originating from a picturesque waterfall« (REDDY & GEBAUER 1988: 107) and in an area where »Falls 10 m« are indicated on the Survey of India sheet 57-I/12 (edition 1981). data from Internet 7419 data from Internet BHAIRAVA GUHA, Pedda Ahobilam Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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ffbfa5f6d5244bc7a639711b369efd92 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: "Bibi" (literally: mother), »The Woman« emphatically, or Honoured Lady, hence Woman simply, or The Mother Goddess. A "mukbara" (from the Arabic maqbara / maqbarah), literally 'grave place', is a bare shaped venerated tomb that serves as a "dargah" (place of access) of a "pir" (Muslim saint), who attracts pilgrims to a "ziarat / ziaratgah" (pilgrimage site). data from Internet 7484 data from Internet BIBI ka MUKBARA TUNNEL Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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25faae3dec30f6baca690ff56d57a290 fra data from Internet -5 data from Internet NOTE 1: FAXIAN (Fa Hian, Fa Hien, Fahian, Fa Hsien) circa 415 for 399-414 AD translated by M. Remusat with notes by Klaproth and J.W. Landresse 1836): Foe Koue Ki: The pilgrimage of Fa Hian.- FA HIAN (translated by W. Laidley from the translation by Remusat 1848 / 2000): Foe Koue Ki: The pilgrimage of Fa Hian.- FA HIEN (edited by James Legge 1886): Travels of Fa-hien.- NOTE 2: According to CASPANI (1945: 49) in BEAL (1906). NOTE 3: XUANZANG (Hiuen Tsiang 629 AD in BEAL 1883-1884 edited 1981): Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist records of the western world: translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang.- HIOUEN THSANG (629 edited by Stanislas Julien 1853): Histoire de la vie de Hiouen Thsang et de ses voyages dans l'Inde depuis l'an 629 jusqu'en 645.- HSUEN TSANG (629 edited by René Grousset 1929 edited 1957, 1977): Sur les traces du Bouddha.- HWUI LI & TEN TSUNG (edited by Samuel Beal 1911, 2nd edition, reprinted 1973): The life of Hiuen Tsiang.- NOTE 4: Nagarahara (Nagahara, Nangarahar, Nangrahar, Ningrahar) is the ruined capital in the Jalalabad plain (town: 34°26'N: 70°28'E: 595 m asl, PI-42-07) on the river Kabul (Kabul rud) in the modern province of Nangarhar, west of Kabul. SIMPSON (1881: 183-207) located the ruined city close to the small village of Naghrak (N34°26': E070°22'30”, PI-42-07) in the angle formed by the junction of the "Surkhar" (sic! for: Surkh Rod, Sorkhab) and Kabul rivers, and on their right banks. "M." (Messieur) Alfred FOUCHER (1925) refers to the zone of ruins as the Begram of Jalalabad (indicated as »Begrami« on the AIMS toposheet PI-42-07, May 2002), just north of Naghrak. NOTE 5: This Buddha is said to have brainwashed the "dragon" Naga Gopala. Leaving the converted beast behind, the enlighted one consoled it by leaving his shadow (–>Buddha's Shadow and Naga Gopala). This feat looks less strange, when considering that Saint George, the Christian counterpart, left his dragon dying in a pool of blood simply for the sake of supression. Lust, however, survived anyhow. NOTE 6: FAXIAN (Fa Hian, Fa Hien, Fahian, Fa Hsien) circa 415 published 2000: 92-93): »It was here that Foe [Buddha] left his shadow. When you contemplate it at the distance of ten paces, it is as if you can saw the veritable person of Foe himself, of the colour of gold, with all its characteristic beauties, and resplendent with light. The nearer you approach, the fainter the shadow becomes …« XUANZANG (in BEAL 1884-1885 edited 1981, 2: 93-95): »In old days there was a shadow of Buddha to be seen here, bright as the true form, with all its [32]characteristic marks [in BEAL 1981: 1 note 5, 145 note 76].« NOTE 7: Chaharbagh (indicated on the map accompanying SIMPSON 1881) is not shown on the AIMS sheet PI42-07 (May 2002) but should lie near N34°23': E070°23'. The US militant's website gnpswww.nima.mil/geonames (accessed 28.05.2004) positions a »Chaharbagh-e Safa« at N34°25'39”: E070°22'51” (WGS84). Spelled »Chahar Bag« (MASSON in: WILSON 1841: 101), »Chaharbag« (SIMPSON 1881:194, 200; FOUCHER 1925; GROUSSET 1929, 1932; CASPANI 1945: 50), but also »Chehar Bag« (WILSON 1841 map), and »Tschaharabagh« in the German translation of GROUSSET (1986: 103-105). NOTE 8: »Near the Ziarat is a watercourse which is normally dry. If you follow this up you will find yourself in a deep ravine cut through a ridge of conglomerate formation which begins in the Siah Koh and terminates in an undulation of the plain. Even from afar the sides of this ravine appear like walls on either side of the stream where it pours down from the hills on the 'dasht' (desert like plain) below, over two consecutive drops several metres high. This side (i.e. downstream) of the drops, some mounds and remains of stupas and dwellings are to be seen on the banks. The stream has carved a way for itself in the rocky side of the hill, forming those waterfalls and flowing in a narrow bed between steep hills down towards the plains. At the foot of these hills is to be found the ridge of conglomerate formation mentioned above. The waterfalls have as a background a high vertical wall of dark rocks. The stream runs along the foot of this wall before entering the first drop. […details] This then is the spot. But those tiny caverns [Caves in the –>Passani Khol] cannot be the Cave of the Shadow« (CASPANI 1945: 50-51). NOTE 9: CASPANI 1945: 50) reads »the stream, having gathered momentum from the fall, penetrated into it and divided into several rivulets.« A more likely scenario, quite common in conglomerate caves, would be percolating water (from above the fall) that emerge at the ceiling and cave walls. data from Internet 2982 data from Internet BUDDHA's SHADOW, Nagarahara (Cave of) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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f5dd791ffc89ab6213d1817802cc85e6 fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet A karst spring yielding 70 lps (liters per second) report ADYALKAR & RADHAKRISHNA (1972: 136) from Chepka (note 1), a village in the –>Markandi River valley. The spring emerges out of Kanger Limestone (Indravati Series, Purana Group) in a low topographic area and rises from about half a dozen orifices in a bowl-shaped depression, up to 75 m in diameter and 3 to 5 m in depth. SITUATION: ADYALKAR & RADHAKRISHNA (1972: 136) place the valley of the Markandi River at travelling distances of 25 km from Jagdalpur (N19°04': E082°02') and about 10 km (or so) »beyond« (north-west of) Bastar (N19°12': E081°56') on »the road« (National Highway NH43) to Raipur (N21°14': E081°38'). data from Internet 7609 data from Internet CHEPKA SPRING Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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83cf4b40333e8eff7003c24e770641a9 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: »Chhirchi« or »Chhirchin« (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 150) is not identified unless it is -- but this seems not very likely -- the same as the »Jim« indicated near N30° E080°13' on AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi (U502 series, 1958 edition). NOTE 2: Unta Dhura (Anta Dhura Pass, Kyunam La) N30°35': E080°11' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003): 5475 m asl (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 150). NOTE 3: »Janti Dhura« (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 150) is indicated as »Jandi Dhura« N30°35': E080°11' on AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi (U502 series, 1958 edition).NOTE 4: »Kung Bingri« (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 150), Kungribingri Pass (N30°37': E080°14'). NOTE 5: »Munsyari« (LONELY PLANET, North India 2001: 524) is »spectacularly located« and »accessible by bus from Almora or Pithoragarh« at 2135 m asl (kmvn.org/images/kumaon-map-big.gif accessed 2005.10.06) or at 2290 m asl (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 438) corresponds to »Rathi / Mansiyari« (PRANAVANANDA 1949: 150), »Munsiari« (TILMANN 1937: 223), and »Munsyandi (ou Munsiyari)« (DUCLUZAUX, B 1993d: 44). »Munsyari« (India Road Atlas, Eicher Goodearth 2006: 12 D2) is indicated as »Ranthi« near N30°02': E080°08' on AMS sheet NH44-06 Nanda Devi (U502 series, 1958 edition) in the Gori Ganga (Goriganga River) and lies about 20 km along the road from Tejam (Tajam N29°57': E080°11') north-east via Girgaon and at travelling distances of 155 km from Pithoragarh (N29°35': E080°13': 1815 m), 200 km from Almora (N29°37': E079°40'), 262 km from Nainital / Naini Tal (N29°23': E079°27': 1940 m asl), and 280 km from Kathgodam (N29°16': E079°32'). data from Internet 7618 data from Internet CHHIRCHI / CHIRCHIN (Caves at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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0f03c967e2154ebe8cb4fa657eca91ca fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: The Kurje monastery (in Tibetan: sKu-rjes lha khang) is indicated as »Rewje Monastery« near N27°34': E090°43' on AMS sheet NG46-01 Tongsa Dzong (U502 series, 1960 edition) but as »Kurje« on the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 28 A3). NOTE 2: Rolf A. STEIN (1988: 12 note 35) learned from the French »Mme« (madame) OLSCHAK (1979: 114-115, 165, no. 6) about a natural cave behind the Padmasambhava statue: »Selon Mme Olschak (1979: 114-115, 165, n.6) il y a une grotte naturelle derrière la statue de Padmasambhava.« NOTE 3: STEIN (1988: 12 note 35) learned from a French »Mme« (madame), the married woman Françoise Pommaret Imaeda, that there is not a cave but a rock shelter: »Pour Mme Imaeda il n'y a là qu'un creux et non pas un grotte.« NOTE 4: Mister Corneille Jest, Madam Imaeda and Madam Blondeau made STEIN (1988: 12 note 35) aware of this item: »Indications que je dois à M. Jest, à Mme Imaeda et à Mme Blondeau.« NOTE 5: The site is not only recorded on Fol. 24a-b of U-rgyan guru padma 'byung-gnas la gsol-ba 'debs-pa gu-ru-nyid-kyi zhal-lung le'u bdun-pa (the history of the rNying-ma-pa tradition) but also on Fol. 101 of the rNying-ma-pa chos-'byung --another text of the same tradition (LAUF 1975: 66). NOTE 6: »Guru Rimpoche and other figures such as Ngawang Namgyal (the founder of the country of Bhutan) and Pema Lingpa have a variety of caves associated with them including Taktshang Goemba (Tiger’s Nest) [i.e. –>Tak tSang [Senge] Phug, Paro], Gom Kora [–>Gom Khara], and Membartsho [sic! qua: Me 'bar mtsho; Mebarisho] … among many others« (ALL et al. 2005: 356). NOTE 7: ALL, GROVES & KAMBESIS (2005: 356) refer here to »Armington, 2002« in the sense of ARMINGTON, Stan (2002): Bhutan.- (Melbourne, Auckland, London, Paris: Lonely Planet Publications) 320 pp. NOTE 8: »Kurjey Lhakhang … is also the final resting place of the remains of the first three kings of Bhutan« (showcaves.com/english/misc/misc/KurjeyLhakhang.htmlaccessed 2011.03.14). data from Internet 3029 data from Internet PADMASAMBHAVA PHUG, Kurje Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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7603efba0213dba636cc0bd5e07f2fbb fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet A natural, sacred cave with an entrance in the base of a circular collapse doline leads to a descending rift passage, which is suspected to function as an insurgence (sink, sinkhole) draining eastwards to the river Barak or one of its tributaries. SITUATION: The temple cave lies somewhere in the vicinity of –>Yoni Dvara (or: Larger –>Cachar Cave) in the Bhuban Hills (Bhoban / Bhuvan Pahar), Cachar district, Assam. CAVE DESCRIPTION: Frank Ede had »…visited the smaller cave first [see also –>Yoni Dvara: Bhuban Pahar]. It is approached by a rough rocky path terminating in a hollow or punch bowl which has been formed by the collapse of the rock in the form of a circle, by reason of the removal or shifting of the underlying strata to a lower level by the action of water or some other agency. The cave or pipe descends from the bowl very rapidly for some distance, then rises and forms a saddle, again descends very rapidly and finally empties itself into the Barak or one of its tributaries. We were unable to find its outlet, as it becomes far too narrow to allow a man to pass. In the rains the cave must be more or less full of water, which can only get away very slowly (through cracks and fissures forming minor potholes) until it rises above the level of the saddle, when it has a much freer outlet and flows away fairly rapidly. We were not able to find any stone implements, or bones, fossil or recent, in this cave. In some places the rocks were rounded and coated with pearly sinter. With the exception of a few bats, it is doubtful if this cave was ever inhabited by man or beast« (EDE 1902: 36-37). CULTURAL HISTORY - pseudo-scientific bullshit: »In the North Cachar Hills [sic! qua: Cachar Hills] two caves representing the earlier patterns of tribal architecture was noticed by E.D.E. Frank in 1902« (SINGH, G P 2008: 202). CAVE LIFE: EDE (1902: 37) noticed the presence of a few unspecified bats (Chiroptera). data from Internet 7554 data from Internet CACHAR CAVE (Smaller) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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c2740d332898c558bf24a1d070137463 fra data from Internet -24 data from Internet In spite of about 200 m of true cave passages, a large part of the »magnificent caverns« (KENNEDY, K A R 1977: 101) forming the Billa Sorgam (note 1) is a partly unroofed and hence partly daylight-lit cave ruin, which currently consists of a generally south-north trending but meandering gorge (on average 15 m to 20 m wide, 20 m high, some 250 m long) with a seasonal streambed (note 2), which is spanned by three major natural bridges (note 3) and joined by a few entirely dark caves passages which represent relic tributary cave passages abandoned by flowing water. Archaeologists consider not only tributary passages (Charnel House, Purgatory, Fairy Chamber) but also some subdivisions (Cathedral, Chapter House) as individual »caves« but in the speleological sense of the word these are cave passages. Thanks to the efforts of diggers employed by archaeologists, not only »quite a bit of earth was moved from one place to another« (KENNEDY, K A R 1977: 101) but also speleothems were removed. Thus, some aspects of the original state of conservation has been partly restored (Argh!). In other, politically less correct words: Much of the infilling has been destroyed. ETYMOLOGY: »However familiar the name Billa Surgam may be to those who take interest in Indian prehistory, the name is unknown in the district [note 4] and the very existence of the cave is hardly known outside the limits of Kottala. In Kottala the caves are called Baljivargam Gavi by some and Baljigam Vanka by others. Gavi in the local dialect means a cave and vanka means a water-course and has reference to the stream issuing from the cave. Baljivargam and Baljigam seem to be corrupt variants of Billa Surgam which itself is compounded of the Telugu word billam meaning a cave and the Sanskrit suranga which also means cave« (CAMMIADE, L A 1926: 175). PRASAD & YADAGIRI (1986 for 1980-1981: 72): Either Robert Bruce or Henry Bruce a.k.a. »Bruce Foote named these caves [i.e. part of the Billa Surgam] from east to west [sic!] as Charnel House, Purgatory Cave, Cathedral Cave and Chapter House.« HASLAM, M et al. (2010: 1): »The Billa Surgam, or Billa Surangam … [is] named through a combination of the Telugu billam and the Sanskrit suranga, both meaning ‘cave’ …« HASLAM, M et al. (2010: 3): »From north to south the caves are known as Charnel House, Purgatory, Cathedral, the North and South Chapels, and Chapter House, with intervening sections named the Transept, Gothic Archway and the Inner and Outer Courts (Figure 2). Incompletely explored passageways extend into the rock from the interior of several of these caves, with other dissolution chambers located along these passages (e.g. the ‘Fairy Chamber’ extending off Cathedral Cave).« GEOGRAPHY: Billa Surgam is a »… karst formation within bluish-grey fine-grained Narji limestone, part of the Cuddapah Basin, which is itself comprised of sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Cuddapah and Kurnool Super Groups [MURTY & THIMMA REDDY 1976]. These include sandstones, shales, and quartzites, which are visible in exposures and on tracks leading to the caves, as well as on the surrounding land surfaces. Limestone for building purposes is actively quarried around both Kottala and Betamcherla. The area is also used for pastoral activities and dry-farming agriculture; it is representative of a semi-arid tropical landscape with an average rainfall of 700 mm per annum and anthropogenically degraded vegetation dominated by Albizia and Acacia species [MURTY, M L K 1985]. The modern wild fauna is limited to genera of intermediate size, such as Hystrix, Viverra, Lepus, Felis and Manis [PRASAD 1996]. The Betamcherla area has a large number of limestone caves, shelters and crevices, of which the Billa Surgam complex is among the largest and most extensively investigated« (HASLAM, M et al. 2010: 1-2). POSITIONS: Compare the file Billa Surgam positions.fp5. POSITION 2011: Near (unspecified precision error) »N 15° 26,126'; E 78° 11.131' [N15°26'07.6”: E078°11'07.9”]« (unspecified map datum, unidentified precision error, LANE et al. 2011: 1819). POSITION 2010.1: Near (unspecified precision error) »78°11'7.1”: 15°26'13.1”« (WGS84 in: Dar, Perrin et al. 2011.02.02 Mss table 1: C-14) or near N15°26'13.1”: E078°11'07.1” (unidentified map datum possibly Everest 1830) equalling N15°26'08.8”: E078°11'11.4” (WGS84) POSITION 2010.2: N15 26.153’ E78 11.122’ (HASLAM, M et al. 2010: 1) equalling N15°26'09.2”: E078°11'07.3” and POSITION 1982: Apparently near (±250 m) N15°26'10”: E078°11'10”: circa 350 m asl (Everest 1830, H D Gebauer 2010 after Survey of India sheet 57-I/03 edition 1983). POSITION 1974: Near (±250 m) N15°26'15”: E078°11'05” (unidentified map datum probably Everest 1830, MURTY, M L K 1974: 197 figure 1: Map showing the cave areas around Betamcherla …) POSITION 1884: Near (±1.25 km) N15°25'19.9”: E078°15'53” (Everest 1830) if the position of »Billa Surgam … is a mile [1608 m] north-north-east [022.5 degree = 25 grade] of that assigned by Newbold [1844]« (FOOTE, R B 1884a: 28). POSITION 1844: Near (±1.25 km) »Lat 15°25', Long 78°15', Southern India« (NEWBOLD, T J 1844). SITUATION 2010: »… the Billa Surgam caves in the Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh (N15 26.153’ E78 11.122’) … or Billa Surangam caves are approximately 5 km from the town of Betamcherla [note 6], and 1 km south-east of the village of Kinda Kanama Kottala [note 7] in Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh. … the complex lies on the southern edge of a valley that is located on the eastern side of a low area of the Eastern Ghats« (HASLAM, M et al. 2010: 1 referring to ALLCHIN, F R & ALLCHIN, B 1962 and CAMMIADE, L A 1926).SITUATION 1996: PRASAD (1996: 30 figure 1: Map showing cave areas around Betamcherla, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, S. India) indicates »Billasurgum« with a character Omega-like cave symbol about 1 km in a direct line approximately south-east of »Kottala« (compare –>Kottala Guhalu) and about 2 km in a direct line approximately north-west of another character Omega-like cave symbol (unidentified). SITUATION 1981 (H D Gebauer): At linear distances of 4.1 km approximately ESE (3.8 km east and 1.5 km south) from the railway station at Betamcherla and almost 1 km approximately south-east (730 m east and 600 m south) from the village of K. Kottala. APPROACH 1981: From the railway station at Betamcherla cross to the south-eastern side and proceed 2 km, initially across level country, due east to fork near N15°26'41”: E078°09'57” (Everest 1830). Turn south (right) and climb across a low col exposing bright yellow coloured ochre sediments and proceed another 1.5 km a little south by east to Kottala. Beyond the village, keep on heading generally eastwards but turn south (right) for the north-facing mouth of the Billa Surgam gorge near N15°26'05”: E078°11'12” (Everest 1830). Walk upstream into the meandering and eventually partly roofed gorge where the gaping cave entrances are difficult to miss even in deep snow conditions (H D Gebauer). SITUATION 1980-1981: »The Billa Surgam Cave lies on the southern side of the valley of "Yerra Konda" a low rising hillcok 5 m south-east of Betamcherla« (PRASAD & YADAGIRI 1986: 72) SITUATION 1980: About 5 km south-east of Betamcherla and about 1 km south-east of Kottala, the gorge opens on the south side of a narrow valley at the eastern side of the Yerra Konda, a range of low hills and plateaus that form part of the western rim of the Kurnool basin (THIMMA REDDY, K 1980: 206). SITUATION 1974: »Approximately 4.5 km south-east of Betamcherla« (MURTY, M L K 1974: 196). MURTY, M L K (1974: 197 figure 1: Map showing cave areas around Betamcherla, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh) indicates »Billasurgum« (sic!) as a black dot about a kilometre south-east of Kottala. SITUATION 1927: The »Billa Surgam caves … are situated in the limits of the village of Kottala about three miles to the south-east of Betamcherla railway station« (CAMMIADE, L A 1927: 7). SITUATION 1926: »A railway line runs now within three miles [4.8 km] of the caves. The nearest railway station is Betamcherla on the Guntakal-Bezwada branch of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. A rough cart track leads eastwards from the station to a petty jungle village named Kottala and the caves are about half a mile [0.8 km] of the village (sheet 57 1/3 of the map published in 1923 by the Survey of India --scale 1"--1 mile)« (CAMMIADE, L A 1926: 175). SITUATION 1906: »These caves are situated in the Yerrakonda hills, near Billa Surgam, about 35 miles [56 km] south of the Tungabhadra, in a region of Cuddapah formation« (LOGAN 1906: 37). SITUATION 1885: »… in a desolate out-of-the-way valley out of reach of civilisation and all society … which is no small trial to a young man fresh from all the gaiety and life of Bombay« (FOOTE, R B 1885: 235)SITUATION 1884: »Billa Surgam lies on the south side of a narrow valley opening on the east side of the Yerra Konda or Red Hills, the range of low hills and plateaus forming the western side of the Kurnool basin. Its position is a mile north-north-east of that assigned by Newbold [note 8], and it lies 3 miles [4.8 km] east-south-east of Betumcherru (Baitumcherloo) in the south-eastern corner of Nandyal taluq« (FOOTE, R B 1884a: 28). SITUATION 1877: »In the answer I received (dated 10th January 1877) from the Collector of Karnúl, this officer says: "There is no place near Banaganpilli [Banaganapalle N15°18'45”: E078°13'30” Everest 1830] which goes by the name of Billa-Surgam and noted for any caves containing fossil stones. There is, however, a village called Bilum [Belum N15°06'40”: E078°07'30” Everest 1830], 7 miles south-east of Owk [N15°12'30”: E078°07'00” Everest 1830] in the Koilkuntla taluk, containing some caves [i.e. –>Belum Guhalu], but the Deputy Collector who inspected them says they contain only slate stones." This position would be about 12 miles [19.3 km] to south-by-west of Banaganpilli. Both these spots are in the Jamalmadgu limestone, of Messrs. King and Foote's classification [KING, W 1872], described by Newbold as the 'diamond limestone' « (MEDLICOTT, H B 188a: 4). SITUATION 1844: »… the caves of Billa Soorgum, Lat. 15°25', Long. 78°15', Southern India … are situated in the hills composed of the diamond limestone …« (NEWBOLD, T J 1844: 610) CAVE DESCRIPTION: At least half of the trunk passage's ceiling has collapsed. Only the relics of not much more than two natural bridges, separated by a 30 by 15 m wide daylight window, are left to cover some 10 and 30 m of the main passage. The 30 odd metres of CHARNEL HOUSE starts with a 9 m wide and 15 m high opening which successively decreases in size towards the cleft-controlled distal end which is crossed by an orthogonal cleft. In spring 1883 a 4.6 m thick infilling was removed (FOOTE, R B 1884a: 30). PURGATORY CAVE: Previously penetrable only for a limited distance, had Henry B. Foote in March 1884 some 100 m of this passage cleared from infillings. At 4.0 m below the original sedimentary surface, a calcite floor covered 0.9 to 1.2 m of red clay. When surveyed in 1981 was the Purgatory at the confluence with the trunk passage 6 m wide and 8 m high. Till now is soon decreases in size and runs into numerous too tight tight side passages. The niche nicknamed CATHEDRAL CAVE (28 m wide, up to 20 m high and some 20 horizontal metres deep) is furnished with an impressive assemblage of flowstone and stalactites aptly christened 'High Altar' by the original explorers. This has been excavated in late April and May 1884 (Foote 1884b: 201). Between December 1884 and May 1885 a 4.9 m thick sedimentary layer has been removed by digging, blasting and breaking up with cold chisels (Foote 1985: 228). In the southern corner of the Cathedral Cave a wide shaft was sunken to a depth of 11.3 m. This revealed the existence of a 17 m long cave passage called the CORRIDOR which connected to an east-west running passage forming a domed chamber (before the excavation of the floor was commenced: 7.5 m by 3.5 m and 3 m in the centre). At the eastern extremity of the chamber, the roof of the cave sloped down to to about 0.6 m above the floor, and here occurred helictites described as a »perfect forest of most beautiful little stalactites, some forming delicate little pillars, others branching off into tree-like forms as ramified as the most elaborate corals« (FOOTE 1885: 228). To this chamber Henry B. Foote gave the name FAIRY CHAMBER. The western end of Fairy Chamber was filled with earth, the eastern end was not closer inspected, and a continuation of The Corridor on the southern wall of Fairy chamber was left untouched. CAVE DESCRIPTION 2011: A »series of deep sedimentary traps extending off a winding limestone dissolution channel« (LANE et al. 2011). CAVE DESCRIPTION 2010: »The Billa Surgam, or Billa Surangam caves are karst formations within bluish-grey fine-grained Narji limestone, part of the Cuddapah Basin, which is itself comprised of sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Cuddapah and Kurnool Super Groups [MURTY & THIMMA REDDY 1976]. These include sandstones, shales, and quartzites, which are visible in exposures and on tracks leading to the caves, as well as on the surrounding land surfaces. … The complex comprises two main caves and several smaller cavities opening onto a connected set of deep, steep-walled gorges. From north to south the caves are known as Charnel House, Purgatory, Cathedral, the North and South Chapels, and Chapter House, with intervening sections named the Transept, Gothic Archway and the Inner and Outer Courts (Figure 2). Incompletely explored passageways extend into the rock from the interior of several of these caves, with other dissolution chambers located along these passages (e.g. the ‘Fairy Chamber’ extending off Cathedral Cave). All the caves have large entrances relative to the size of the main chambers, with Charnel House and Cathedral Caves the largest in the complex. The Billa Surgam gorge is up to c. 30 m deep, and has at its base a meandering seasonal watercourse marked at present by large rolled cobbles and boulders. Occasional rock arches span the gorge up to 20 m above the base, remnants of a roof that would have once covered the whole cave system [THIMMA REDDY 1977 published 1980]. Upper portions of the gorge walls are in places rounded and smoothed, marking the likely location of former sinkholes and indicating that the original roof of the complex has collapsed in stages. Prior to roof collapse the stream that currently passes through the complex would have run across the top of the caves, with simultaneous dissolution of the underlying limestone deposits. The connected galleries have widened over time through lateral corrosion [PRASAD & YADAGIRI 1986]« (HASLAM, M et al. 2010: 1, 2-3). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1986: PRASAD & YADAGIRI (1986) gave a summarising description of Billa Sorgam. CAVE DESCRIPTION 1981: DUTT, N V B S (1981: 1) just about mentions »the picturesque Beljiggma or Bilasorangam near Kottala …« CAVE DESCRIPTION 1980-1981: »A group of five cave openings are joined by natural arches. The cave floors are at different heights and are above the level of the dry stream bed which flows into the valley« (PRASAD & YADAGIRI 1986 for 1980-1981: 72). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1977: KENNEDY, K A R (1977) discusses aspects of Pleistocene and post-Pleistonce »man in India« and regarded the »Billa Surgam Cave complex« a »magnificent cavern« (page 101).CAVE DESCRIPTION 1975: A quick look at »una apposita vetrina dell'India Museum di Calcutta« (a showcase in the Indian Museum at Calcutta) enabled MARZOLLA (1975: 74) to discover not only that natural caves containing relics of Pleistocene fauna have been studied in the State of Andhra Pradesh, South-Central India, but also that the most important caves of »Karnul« (sic!) are Charnel House Cave, »Chatedral« (sic!) or Cathedral Cave, Purgatory Cave and the very large Billa Surgam Cave, allegedly measuring 100 by 100 m or, more likely, 30 feet in square (note 9). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1927: The »… Billa Surgam caves … adjoin each other and it is probable that they were originally parts of a single large cave« (CAMMIADE, L A 1927: 7). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1926: »The caves are in limestone rock stratified horizontally in loose flag-like beds. As a result of this loose horizontal stratification the roofs of caverns formed in the rock have a tendency to fall in while the walls become vertical. This tendency is specially marked near the entrances of the caverns where loosening of slabs from the roof proceeds quicker than in the inner depths. Gradually the entrances to the caverns have risen higher and higher until finally the roofs have collapsed altogether leaving what Bruce Foote has described as "deep but very short canyons". The entrance to these canyons was obviously once the entrance to the caves themselves. The stalactites adhering to the walls of the canyons and the character of the debris that litters the floors leave no doubt on this point« (CAMMIADE, L A 1926: 175-176). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1906: »These caves … near Billa Surgam … three in number, known as the Cathedral, Charnel House and Purgatory caves … extend some hundreds of feeet into the hill, ending in narrow passages through which the water must have entered, and have the appearance of considerable antiquity, being above the present drainage levels and full of stalagmite in enormous masses« (LOGAN 1906: 37). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1894: MARTEL (1894: 542 note 1) discusses principles of »ponts naturels« (natural bridges) on a global scale and interpretes LYDEKKER, R (1886b, with cave plan): »Les petites cavernes de Billa Surgam (gouvernement de Madras, Inde) se composent de trois profonds et courts petits cañons réunis par des arcades naturelles; les grottes s'ouvrent sur les cañons à différents niveaux, et kes cañons eux-memes ont été jadis des cavernes; en temps des pluie un courant les traverse« (note 10). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1884b: »It is impossible to give any closer idea of this remarkable cave without illustrations, which it is hoped will be forthcoming to accompany the final report on the cave work« (FOOTE, R B 1884b: 201). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1884a: »Billa Surgam … may be described as consisting of three [consecutive and] deep but very short "cañons" joined by natural arches. The various caves open into the cañons at different levels. The cañons themselves were once caves of large size, the roofs of which have fallen in, in great part. The ground plan of the place may, for sake of illustration, be compared to a rather distorted figure of 3, the two principal caves being situate on the right side of the upper and lower parts of the figure. The floor of these two caves is considerably above the level of the bed of the stream, which in wet weather flows through the cañons. … both, and especially the larger one, are well furnished with stalactites, and in the latter it is probable that a large quantity of stalagmite will be found under the present floor. In both cases this is formed of a loose blackishgrey soil, largely made up of the dropping of birds, bats, and other animals« (FOOTE, R B 1884a: 28). »Both at the Yerra Zari Gabbi and Billa Surgam the walls of the passages are delicately fretted by the action of water trickling down their surface, and the beautiful sections of the limestone thus prepared afford a very strong proof of its unfossiliferous character. If organisms even of very delicate nature existed in it, some few would most assuredly have been worked out by the action of the flowing water which has that effect in so many other places. I examined the cave walls, as far as they were within reach, very carefully, and saw not the faintest indication of any fossil« (FOOTE, R B 1984a: 32). CAVE DESCRIPTION 1844: »… the Caves of Billa Soorgum … From the roofs of some depend clusters of stalactites, while the sides and floor are encrusted with stalagmite, covered with an ammoniacal and nitr data from Internet 7501 data from Internet BILLA SURGAM Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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dfbc440c8c6ad06baa6d5e976fe8ce17 fra data from Internet 0 data from Internet NOTE 1: »… there is a shapeless water worn stone [lingam?], which is considered holy by the Hindus« (CUNNINGHAM 1848: 252). NOTE 2: »Mutthun, or Mattan -- 11th June, 1851. Wednesday -- I visited the famous Caves of Mutthun yesterday evening … The Brahmins subsequently endeavoured to make me believe there was a road all through the mountains to Islamabad, and that a person could reach it crawling on hands and knees« (HERVEY 1853, 2: 198). The fabulous tunnel leading from the cave of Bhima Devi to an unspecified spot at Anantnag (a.k.a. Islamabad N33°44': E75°09') covers a linear distance of about 7.34 km approximately ESE. NOTE 3: Till today holds true Abul Fazl's centuries old statement of 1590 A.D. that the cave's length »cannot be ascertained« (ABUL FAZL 1590 translated and edited after JARRETT 1893 revised by SARKAR & SEZGIN 1993, 2: 360). CUNNINGHAM (1848: 252) mentions 160 + 20 + 15 feet (59 m) but, judging from his cave survey, appears to have meant 160 + 20 + 15 yards (178 m). LYDEKKER (1883: 31) says the »cavern … may be traversed for a length of about 210 feet [64 m obviously without considering the tributary side passages and counting exclusively the travelling distance between the entrance and the furthest point reached] but seems to extend much farther.« Impeccable PRANAVANANDA (1949: 172) estimates a length of about 200 yards (183 m). The "British Karst Research Expedition to the Himalaya 1970" (WALTHAM, A C 1971 editor) managed to produce a simple cave plan (showing some 180 m of passage) but failed to arrive at a cave length (PATOUREL, G 1971: 75-76; WALTHAM, A C 1971b: 25) or stated cave lengths including »about 60 m« (BOWSER 1971: 21) and »about 300 feet« (91 m, COWARD 1971a: 31; 1971c: 30). NOTE 4: Roger J. Bowser spent in late September 1970 »… a day on a dig at the end of the cave« (BOWSER 1971: 21) and allegedly »… tried unsuccessfully [sic! for: not sufficiently motivated] to dig his way through« (WALTHAM, J M 1971: 11). NOTE 5: »See Rajat, vi. 178 note« (STEIN, M A 1899: 176 note) which seems to refer to KALHANA (1140 edited by STEIN, M A 1892-1900, vol. 1, book VI, page 178, footnote). NOTE 6: HÜGEL, Carl (1840-1848, 1: 286): »Der Eingang in dieser Höhle ist ungefähr 30 Fuss über der Ebene, und ziemlich schwer zu erklimmen. Im Anfange findet man mehrere Eingänge zu kleinen, von Natur gebildeten Kammern von verschiedener Form; ich durchsuchte eine nach der anderen; sie sind alle ohne Ausgang und ohne irgend eine Verzierung; in einer Kammer fand ich ein neues Grab, in einer anderen ein menschliches Gerippe: allein, wenn man weiter fortgeht, so ist bald nur mehr Ein Weg übrig, und dieser endet durch die immer niederer und niederer werdende Decke nach 50 bis 60 Schritten, von den 20 im Schlamme des herabtriefenden Wassers zurück zu legen sind. Dies war die berühmte endlose Höhle Mattan's.« NOTE 7: »Our expeditionary force consisted … [of] the brother officer … F. … and myself« (KNIGHT 1863 "Diary" Introduction). NOTE 8: »This was written without being aware that the native name of Mutton is a corruption of Martund, by which name the temple is also designated« (KNIGHT 1863 "Diary" note 10). data from Internet 7455 data from Internet BHIMA DEVI (Cave of) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3f4e66faeda3515d9625b48999cc17fe fra data from Internet 3 data from Internet A rock shelter (or cave?), which contains rock art (various symbols, animals and dancing scenes in red ochre and occasional white), yielded microliths (LAL 1973: 37). SITUATION: Less than 24 km south of »Koraou« (Kuraon N24°59': E82°05') in Meja tahsil. data from Internet 7590 data from Internet CHANDWA SHELTER Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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087972f1c496a2dc51f80a0130a30b90 fra data from Internet -11 data from Internet NOTE 1: The grass covered valley floor at Bhimkund is a level ground at elevations around 395 m asl (Survey of India sheet 54-P/7, 1977 editon), which is drained (during the monsoon in May, June, July) by a nala (also: nullah, seasonal stream, streambed) from the WNW (west-northwest) to the right bank of the Sukku Nadi, a tributary to the Kathar Nadi which joins the Dhasan River near 25°48'N: 79°24'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003). NOTE 2: »Bijawar State … The geological formations met with are of unusual interest, the State giving its name to the Bijawar series of sandstones and shales, one of the most important geological formations in India, of which it contains the type area. Its characteristic rocks, which are here met with in great abundance, are quartzite, sandstones, shales, slates, limestones, banded jaspers, hornstone, breccias, and a considerable deposit of basic volcanic rocks. Rich deposits of peculiar iron are also met with. All the northern part of the State, however, including the chief town, stands upon an outcrop of gneiss, which underlies the Bijawars. Some diamond mines situated in the Panna diamond-bearing tract belong to this state. The annual rainfall averages 38 inches [965 mm]« (IMPERIAL GAZETTEER (1907-1909, VIII: 188). NOTE 3: The »Cave & Spring« has been recorded as Bheemkund Shri Rambabu Awasthi 2006.01.10; Shri Omprakash Trapathi (2006.01.11 personal communication); Bhiakund Cave GLENNIE, E A (1956: 10 after Survey of India sheet 54 P/7 edition 1909); CRAVEN, S A (1969: 26); JUBERTHIE et al. (2001: 1785); Bhimkund indiasite.com/madhyapradesh/khajuraho/bhimkund.html (accessed 2005.08.15); Bhimkund Cave Spring Survey of India sheet 54-P/07 (edition 1977); Biakund Cave GLENNIE, E A (1949: 55); Cavern in the Bijawer Hills HAMILTON, W (1828, 1: 296); Biya Cúnd FRANKLIN, J (1825.05.21 edited 1827: 279); Dargawan Cave GLENNIE, E A (1949: 54); Narad Kund indiasite.com/madhyapradesh/khajuraho/bhimkund.html (accessed 2005.08.15). Neel Kund indiasite.com/madhyapradesh/khajuraho/bhimkund.html (acessed 2005.08.15). NOTE 4: »Landscapes receive the pagan gods they deserve, and the gods were not so urban that they ever lived in towns« (LANE FOX, Robin 1987: Pagans and Christians.- New York: Alfred A. Knopf), page 42 after SCULLY, V (1962: The earth, the temple and the gods; M.A.M.A. IV p 15). NOTE 5: »Bijáwar« (FRANKLIN, J 1825.05.21 / 1827: 279) is the town of Bijawar 24°38'N: 79°30'E on Survey of India sheet 54-P/06 (1977 edition), AMS sheet NG44-14 Panna (U502 series, 1962 edition) and India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 55 F2). NOTE 6: Chhatarpur 24°54'N: 79°36'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 55 F1) is the »Chatterpur« of FRANKLIN, J (1829 map C2). NOTE 7: Sagar 23°50'N: 78°43'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003), AMS sheet NF44-01. NOTE 8: Khajuraho 24°51'N: 79°56'E (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003), AMS sheet NG44-14 Panna (U502 series, 1962 edition). NOTE 9: The cave erroneously placed »1.5 miles east [sic! for: west] of Dergaon« by MEDLICOTT (1860: 33), repeated by GLENNIE (1956: 9) is –>Patal Ganga (Darguwan). NOTE 10: »gada« (Hindi?, Journalese?, Webspeak?) or "khatta" (Sanskrit); club, cudgel (English). NOTE 11: Bijawar State: The chief crops are kodon (45 square miles or 19 per cent of the cropped area), kutki (27 square miles, 12%), barley (24 square miles, 10%), urd and rice (12 square miles each), and wheat (9 square miles). »The forests, which occupy 429 square miles [1111 square kilometers], are now being in part 'reserved'. The most important trees are the mahua (Bassia latifolia), which supplies the staple food of the poor, especially in bad seasons, the tendu (Diospyros tomentosa), and the seja (Lagerstroemia parviflora). A stunted form of teak also abounds« (IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, vii: 190). NOTE 12: Pukka (Anglo-Indian), adjective, from the Hindi "pakka", literally »ripe, mature, cooked« and hence substantial, permanent, with many specific applications, e.g. hard-topped (road). NOTE 13: Most of the steps and terraces are built from a dense, fine-grained sandstone but parts of the flooring and structures are made from concrete, especially those close to the water or beneath it. Almost the entire floor of the air-filled part of the cave is covered by concrete and slabs concealing the original cave sediments which are now only accessible in the dark, lateral passage arriving about half way down from NNW to the main cave. The cave-bearing rock exposed on the walls and ceiling is not modified by man -- except for the poster-sized relief showing a Hanuman thickly painted with bright orange coloured enamel) carved from the north-east facing wall above the pool. NOTE 14: »Osteichthyian fishes of the Order Siluriformes, known by the English common name of catfishes, form a well diagnosed natural group of primarily freshwater fishes. … Catfishes often have large, heavy bones that lend themselves to fossilization and, comparatively large otoliths. As such, a large number of species of catfishes have been named from complete or partial skeletal fossils or even from only otoliths« (FERRARIS 2007: Introduction). NOTE 15: BISWAS, J (1992: Kotumsar cave ecosystem …- Journal of Cave and Karst Studies: National Speleological Society Bulletin ISSN 0146-9517; Huntsville, Alabama: National Speleological Society, vol. 54, no. 1, June 1992), page 9, report from the cave near Kotomsar village (Kanger nala, Kondagaon tahsil, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh state) the co-existence of two morphological forms (one »albinic and blind« photograph on Fig. 4, the other »with little pigmentation and regressed eyes« Fig. 5) of Nemacheilus Evezardi Day: »… one form is completely albinistic and blind while the other exhibits reduced pigmentation and regressed vision.« NOTE 16: Straub, Rainer (2006.02.25 Mss, 2006.05.22 Mss): »Wir robben durch fast 10 cm hohe Guanoschichten und erkennen am sichtbaren Ende in einer kleinen Kammer einige 10er Fledermäuse. Sie sind hellbraun und haben einen weißen Bauch. Ihre Spannweite beträgt zirka 25-30 cm. Ihre Kopf-Rumpflänge etwa 10-15 cm. Auffällig ist ihre schöne Schnauze. Es handelt sich um den indischen Kurznasenflughund (Shortnosed fruit bat) Cynopterus sphinx. Es kommt entweder die Unterart Cynopterus sphinx gangeticus oder Cynopterus sphinx sphinx in Frage (Info M. Schäffler 02/2006).« (Crawling across almost 10 cm deep guano we see in a small chamber some tens of bats. They are light-brown coloured and have a white belly. Their span is about 25 to 30 cm and their head-rump length about 10 or 15 cm. Their beautiful snouts are stunning. According to M. Schäffler, they represent Shortnosed fruit bats (indischer Kurznasenflughund), either Cynopterus sphinx sphinx or Cynopterus sphinx gangeticus). The short-nosed fruit bat (Megachiroptera: Pteropidae: Cynopterus sphinx Vahl 1797) is a tree dweller and rarely ever met underground though Stanley W. KEMP (1924: Notes on the mammals of Siju Cave, Garo Hills, Assam.- Records of the Indian Museum ISSN 0375-099X, Calcutta, vol. 26, part 1: 23-26) reports Cynopterus sphix gangeticus K. Anderson – possibly from the entrance area – of »Siju Cave« (Dobhakol, Siju village, South Garo Hills, Meghalaya state ex- Assam). BROSSET (1961: 437): »En fait, d'apès mes observations, l'espèce est arboricole et ne fréquente quèxcetionellement les constructions« (As a matter of fact, as far as I have observed, this species roosts in trees and rarely ever, with a few exceptions, frequents buildings). According to BROSSET (1962a: 19-23), the dog-shaped head of the bat, the short ears with a thin white margin, and the divergent openings of the nostrils are unmistakeable characteristics of this relatively small frugiverous bat. Like Pteropus, this species is arboreal but, while flying foxes expose themselves during the day, C. sphinx conceals itself and its roosts are difficult to find: »I have seen several in a deserted palace in Orcha, but such haunts are exceptional.«NOTE 17: Straub (2006.02.25 Mss, 2006.05.22 Mss after M. Schäffler 2002 February, personal communication): »Horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae).« NOTE 18: Vergilius Maro, Publius (15.10.70 BC - 21.9.19 BC): Æneis (lib. V, 213): »Speluncâ subito commota columba.« NOTE 19: Makar Sankranti (Sakranti, Sankranthi), the Hindu fecundity festival at winter solstice during the lunar month of Pausa (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 1046) or Poush (travels.talash.com/india/india-fairs-festivals accessed 2005 December, Rainer Straub). Every year on 14th January (in a leap year on 15th January), at the astronomical peak of winter, the sun swings back (makar = capricorn; sankranti = entry) from a descent to the tropic of cancer in the southern hemisphere (Dakshinayana) and commences ascending to the tropic of capricorn in the northern hemisphere (Uttarayana, Makar Rashi). In India, this time coincides with one of the harvest seasons. The day is called by various names in different regions, such as Uttara Punyakala (approximately: peak of darkness), Makar Sankranthi / Sankranti and Makara Sankraman or Pongal (rice boiled in milk) in South India and Lohri in North India. »In Karnataka, people celebrate the festival by distributiing a mixture of sesame seeds, gram, copra and jaggery to neighbours and friends. Farmers decorate oxen and take out a procession in the villages. Similarly in Maharashtra, people distribute laddus made of sesame and sugar among friends« (DECCAN HERALD Bangalore, 13 January 2007: 7). NOTE 20: January 2006 Principal: Rambabu Awashti / Shri Narayan Sanskrit Viddyalay / Bheemkund (Bajna) / Dt. Chhatarpur / Madhya Pradesh / India / phone 07609 - 254866, 254867, 254868. NOTE 21: To claim the temple was founded in the 1950ies or 1960ies creates problems as »Bhiakund Cave Spring« (Glennie, Edward Aubrey 1945.12.01 Mss) is marked with a temple already on the 1909 edition of the Survey of India sheet 54-P/7 (One Inch Series). NOTE 22: On stylistic grounds (whitewashed, stuccoed structures of burned tiles with pointed and crenellated, "moorish" arches supported by decorative pseudo-pillars set into sunken corners) the buildings at Bhimkund suit the tastes of second half of the 19th century and must have been erected during the reign of Bhan Pratap Singh. Bhimkund temple and spring falls on the area of the former Bijawar State, which was originally part of the territory held by the Garha Mandla Gonds and was taken by Chhatarsal, the founder of Panna, in the 18th century. On the partition of his territory among his sons, Bijawar fell to Jagat Raj, as part of the Jaitpur State. In 1796 Bijawar was given to Bir Singh Deo, an illegitimate son of Jagat Raj, by his uncle Guman Singh, then ruler of Ajaigarh. Bir Singh gradually extended his original holding by force of arms, but was killed fighting against Ali Bahadur and Himmat Bahadur in 1793. The latter restored the State to Kesri Singh, son of Bir Singh, granting him a sanad (*) in 1802. On the accession of the British to the supreme power, Raja Kesri Singh at once professed his allegiance but his sanad was anyhow withheld. He died in 1810 and a sanad was granted to his son Ratan Singh in 1811 after his presenting the required deed of allegiance. The chief in 1857 became Bhan Pratap Singh for his services to the British during the Mutiny. He also received a khilat (robe of honour) and a hereditary salute of 11 guns. By and by Bhan Pratap Singh obtained a sanad of adoption in 1862, the hereditary title of Maharaja in 1866, and the prefix of Sawai in 1877 by plunging the State into financial difficulties till eventually he was honoured with being placed under supervision in 1897. Having no son, he adopted in 1898 Sanwant Singh, second son of the Maharaja of Orcha, who succeeded on Bhan Pratap's death in 1899. * sanad (Hindi) from Arian sunnud and Sanskrit sana means »diploma, patent, or deed of grant by the government of office, privilege, or right« (YULE 1886 edited 1903: 871 "sunnud"), »paper authenticated by proper signatures« (ABUL FAZL i ‘ALLAMI ca. 1590 edited by GLADWIN 1783, 1: 214; BLOCHMANN 1873, 1: 259), »charter or grand« (IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 1907-1909, 25: XXIV glossary). NOTE 23: NOT SEEN -- BÜCHLER, Anne & SCHUMACHER, Rolf (1989 edited by KELLNER, Stephan): Die Nachlässe von Martius, Liebig und den Brüdern Schlagintweit in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek.- Catalogus codicum manu scriptorum Bibliothecae Monacensis (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz), Tomus X [10], Pars 2. 328 pages. data from Internet 7462 data from Internet BHIMKUND, Chhatarpur - Bajna Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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bd8cfa2ae1b3fd9d6566640f4f4b6896 fra data from Internet 1 data from Internet NOTE 1: »… the four great caves of Sikhim [are] hallowed as the traditional abodes of St. Padma and Lhatsün Ch'embo, and now the objects of pilgrimage even to Lamas from Tibet. These four caves are distinguished according to the four cardinal points, viz.: The North Lha-ri ñing p'u or "the old cave of God's hill." It is situated about three days' journey north of Tashiding, along a most difficult path. This is the most holy of the series. The South Kah-do sang p'u, or "cave of the occut fairies." Here it is said is a hot spring, and on the rock are many footprints ascribed to the fairies. The East sBas p'u, or "secret cave." It lies between the Tendong and Mainom mountains, about five miles from Yangang. It is a vast cavern reputed to extend by a bifurcation to both Tendong and Mainom. People go in with torches about a quarter of a mile. Its height varies from five feet to one hundred or two hundred feet. The West bDe-ch'en p'u, or "cave of Great Happiness." It is in the snow near near Jongri, and only reacheable in the autumn« (WADDELL 1895: 256-257 note 2, 1899, 1934, 1939, 1991: 256-257 note 2), NOTE 2: »Jongri« (WADDELL 1895; MACDONALD 1943: 105), »Zongri« (VERMA 1996) or »Dzongri (4025 m), a pleasant area of meadows with several trekkers' huts where you can get food and also tomba« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 535) and »Dzongri, a blissful welkin deemed as one of the eminent trekking destinations of Sikkim« (scstsenvis.nic.in/newsletter2004.html, accessed 2006.08.06) is indicated as »Oongri« (sic!) in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 26 C3) and positioned as »Dzongri« at N27°28': E88°09' (nima.mil/geonames accessed 16.11.2003) in an area that lies at approximate linear distances of A) 15 km approximately north of the –>Dechen Phug at Netham, B) 30 km approximately north of Mt. Singalila (N27°14': E88°02') and Phalut (N27°13': E88°02'), or C) 4 km approximately ENE from N27°27': E88°11' (HUMMEL 1957: 626). NOTE 4: »Yuksom is about 176 kms away from the nearest Railway Station, NJP [New Jalpaiguri N26°41': E088°29' ], and about 180 kms away from Bagdogra [N26°42': E88°19'], the nearest Airport« (scstsenvis.nic.in/newsletter2004.html> (accessed 2006.08.06). NOTE 5: scstsenvis.nic.in/newsletter2004.html (accessed 2006.08.06). NOTE 6: From Yuksom »… the trail follows the Rathong Valley through unspoilt forests and then ascends steeply to Bakhim (2740 m) and then Tsokha (3050 m), a rustic village with a decent trekker's hut. It's a good idea to spend two nights at Tsokha to acclimatise, or to spend the following night at the camp site at Phedang (3760 m), two hours above Tsokha. The next stage brings you to Dzongri (4025 m), a pleasant area of meadows with several trekkers's huts where you can get food and also tongba« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 535). The »pretty village of Yuksom (1780 m) … can be reached by public transport from Geyzing (Gezing, Gyalshing, Gyalzing N27°17': E88°16'] or Jorethang« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 535) and is indicated as »Yaksam« near N27°22': E88°13' on AMS sheet NG45-03 Kanchenjunga U502 series, 1963 edition), as »Yuksam« in the India Road Atlas (Eicher Goodearth 2006: 26 C4) and as »Yoksum 5,600 feet« (1707 m asl) in VERMA (1996: Map of Sikkim).VERMA (1996: Road Map of Sikkim, Darjeeling Area & part of Bhutan): »Yoksum« is accessible along roads from Darjeeling (N27°02': E088°16') by travelling 20 km to Jorethang, ? km to Reshi and 16 km to Legship (Ligship N27°17'30”: E088°17'30”), from where one of two roads runs 13 km via Tashiding and 19 km to Yoksum and the other initially 16 km to Geyzing (Gezing, Gyalshing, Gyalzing N27°17': E088°16'), then 8 km to Pemayantse (Pemayangtse N27°18': E088°15'), later 16 km to Melli (Melli Bazar N27°06': E088°27') and finally 17 km to Yoksum. NOTE 7: »Tsokha (3050 m)« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 535), »Choka, 9000 feet« or 2743 m asl (VERMA 1996). NOTE 8: "Sutra", literally »string«, is the Sanskrit name for a »list of rules expressed in verse« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 1112). NOTE 9: "Tantras" -- Tantric Buddhism is a variety of »Tibetan Buddhism with strong sexual and occult overtones« (LONELY PLANET, India 2005: 1112). data from Internet 7397 data from Internet DECHEN PHUG, Dzongri, Jongri, Zongri Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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0d4a7dc17b556e498fc0b227fb998b50 fra data from Internet -3 data from Internet The most southernly and most voluminous part of the Billa Surgam complex is formed by a roofed bend in the meander of the partly underground »cañons« (FOOTE 1884a: 28) of the Billa Surgam cave complex (KENNEDY 1977: 101). The murky lateral niche or »apse« (FOOTE 1885: 233) has been christened »Cathedral Cave« (FOOTE 1884b: 201) as it is characterised by an about 10 m wide and 15 m high »enormous mass« (FOOTE 1884b: 201) of speleothems (stalagmites and stalactites in a senile state of formation) in twilight and hence was called the »High Altar« (FOOTE 1884b: 201). At the base of the southern wall commences the recently (April-May 1884) excavated »Corridor« (FOOTE 1885: 228), a fully dark (aphotic) and horizontal cave passage which leads 10 m south and then intersects at least 20 m of east-west trending cave passage christened »Fairy Cave« (FOOTE 1885: 228) due to its having contained a fragile occurrence of helictites, which had been described as »a perfect forest of most beautiful little stalactites, some forming delicate little pillars, others branching off into tree-like forms as ramified as the most elaborate corals« (Henry Bruce Foote in FOOTE, R B 1885: 228). Needless to say that these fragile helictites were fully »explored« in the sense of entirely destroyed. ETYMOLOGY: FOOTE (1884b: 201): »The Cathedral Cave contains many more stalactites and stalagmites [speleothems] than any of the others [of the three subdivisions of the Billa Surgam cave complex] and a great part of its eastern end is filled with an enormous mass, composed of both forms of the deposit [note 1], to which the name of the "High Altar" was given from its great resemblance to the sanctuary in a Roman Catholic Cathedral.« PRASAD & YADAGIRI (1986 for 1980-1981: 72) mislead with stating that one »Bruce Foote [either Robert B. Foote or his son Henry B. Foote] named these caves from east to west [sic!] as Charnel House, Purgatory Cave, Cathedral Cave and Chapter House. The Cathedral Cave happens to be the best developed cave among the Billa Surgam group of caves, where a Huge stalagmite growth is seen. To this enchanting piece, Bruce Foote gave the name of High Altar.« CAVE DESCRIPTION 1885: FOOTE, R B (1885: 228): »The second series of excavations made [during 1884 December and 1885 May] in the Cathedral cave was much less easy to effect than the first, as he [Henry Bruce Foote] had to contend with great masses of hard stalagmite, much of which had to be blasted, while the rest was broken up with cold chisels. The excavation of the whole area of the Cathedral cave was effected to a depth of 16 feet [4.9 m], and in the southern corner a wide shaft was sunk to a further depth of 21 feet [6.4 m], making a total of 37 feet [11.28 m] from the original surface [note 2]. The sinking of this shaft revealed the existence of a passage opening from the south. This passage, to which the name of the "Corridor" was given, was followed up, and at a distance of 55 feet [16.76 m] southward of its mouth was found to lead into another larger passage running east and west. On the south side of this east and wet passage, and opposite to the mouth of the Corridor, another passage was found running south apparently, but for want of time was not excavated. The east and west passage formed a domed chamber, measuring, before the excavation of its floor commenced, 25 feet by 12 feet [7.62 m by 3.65 m], with a height of ten feet [3.05 m] in the centre. A large fine stalactite hung from the centre, and below it was a large mass of stalagmite crust from 1/2 to 1 inch [1.3 cm to 2.54 cm] thick over the floor of the chamber. At the eastern extremity of the chamber the roof of the cave sloped down to about 2 feet [0.61 m] from the floor, and here occurred "a perfect forest of most beautiful little stalactites, some forming delicate little pillars, others branching off into tree-like forms as ramified as the most elaborate corals." To this chamber Lieutenant [Henry Bruce] Foote gave the name of the "Fairy Chamber" after the beautiful little cave at Caldy, in Pembrokeshire, so graphically described by Professor Boyd Dawkins in "Cave-hunting." The western end of the "Fairy Chamber" was filled with cave earth, which proved very rich in good specimens, as did also that in the "Corridor". The atmosphere in the Fairy Chamber was extremely close and steamy, and it was impossible to be in it for many seconds without being bathed in perspiration.« FOOTE, R B (1885: 233): »Of the streams which filled the Cathedral, one flowed in from the east, entering the apse close to the north side of the high altar, the other entered from the south through the Corridor. It is not improbable that another passage entered the apse of the Cathedral from the south-east, but is now hidden by the great stalagmitic mass of the high altar.« CAVE DESCRIPTION 1906: »The Cathedral cave contained masses of stalagmite at the sides, and the relics of a floor in the shape of irregular blocks …« (LOGAN 1906: 38). data from Internet 7564 data from Internet BILLA SURGAM 3: Cathedral Cave Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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3795# KURJE DIGLAM Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet 2016-02-10T00:17:00.000Z data from Internet 1979-01-01 data from Internet 2020-12-22T00:14:06.621Z data from Internet true data from Internet 1 data from Internet 18 data from Internet 0 data from Internet
3cc6f86774531509f3e4cc905ddd6ce8 fra data from Internet 4 data from Internet NOTE 1: An informal option (cheaper and sustaining local resources instead of implemented officers) is being lead by a knowledgeable guide along a walk where one looses and gains some 700 to 800 vertical metres in the course of a 10 to 12 km hike (there and back again) from Pachmarhi to the shelter. An overnight stay is recommended. NOTE 2: Matkuli N22°36': E078°27' (Everest 1830) lies 22 km along the road from Pachmarhi. NOTE 3: This checkpoint (no name known) lies probably on the left (western) side of the road from Pachmarhi to Matkuli and, perhaps, near N22°00'30": E078°27' (Everest 1830, Survey of India sheet 55-J/06). NOTE 4: The wide-spread village of Barkachar is shown near N22°30'15": E078°24'30": 990 m asl (Everest 1830, Survey of India sheets 55-J/06 and 55-J/07) and lies at a distance of about 6 km on foot from Pachmarhi via the Jambudip Pahar (circa 1100 m asl). Local informants are believed to have spelled Barkachar as "Watkaschar" (KUSCH 1996: 15) or "Wat Kaschar" (KUSCH 2003: 105) though English speakers use "sh" for the German "sch": »Was den Ort Watkaschar betrifft, so hatte ich den Namen bei den Einheimischen im Ort selbst erfragt und mir aufschreiben lassen. Da kann es schon vorkommen, dass der offizielle Namen anders lautet [Heinrich Kusch 2004.04.18 personal correspondence].« NOTE 5: »Was nun den Ort betrifft den ich in der Höhle [Die Höhle 2003, 54.4: 105] als Wat Kaschar bezeichnet habe, so hast Du recht, es ist jener Ort, der in Deiner Karte [Survey of India sheet 55-J/7 edition 1976] mit Barkachhar bezeichnet wird und die Höhle liegt in einem der vielen von Nord nach Süd verlaufenden Tälern die südwestlich dieses Ortes zu finden sind. Es dürfte einer der Gräben sein die südöstlich der Höhenkote 1.108 m liegen« (Heinrich Kusch 2004.10.20 personal correspondence). data from Internet 7434 data from Internet BHANA BOI ROCKSHELTER Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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6ab2a3d770870a09b0f7f40f806cce84 fra data from Internet 1 data from Internet »Two huge rocks« form »adjacent caves« (modified natural rock shelters) at a place called »Begbasa« (Begubasa): »People have given them proper shapes by creating [sic! for: constructing] stone walls to the open sides« (SHARMA 1994: 146-157). SITUATION: »For reaching Begbasa [Begubasa] on the trail to Rupkund, we have to reach the tahsil town Tharali [note 1] on the road Gwaldam [N30°01': E079°34'] - Karna Prayag [N30°16': E079°15'] and then bifurcate on road along Pindari [note 2, approximate north-east] up to Deval [?]. From Deval we can reach Mundoli or Lohajang in about six to eight hours … Wan … 10 km to camping site Gheruli … four to five hours to camping site Pathar Nachuni at 3800 m … pass Keluwa Vinayak … An easy descent of about two kilometres takes us to Begubasa.« From Begubasa (Begbasa), the route continues first with »a tough climb to Rupkund at the base of Mount Trishul [note 3] … Hom Kundi [note 4] in one day … cross Latu Dhura to reach Malari [note 5] in three days … then follow the routes to Mount Kailash through Niti - Barahoti.« data from Internet 7402 data from Internet BEGUBASA ROCK SHELTER, 1st Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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e1dc4ffc801ba627e82935b4663b7978 fra data from Internet -3 data from Internet limestone data from Internet 2783 data from Internet DARRA-i KUR Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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70ef718b33a1056b54d9c3f10e19a15e fra data from Internet -3 data from Internet Limestone data from Internet 2823 data from Internet JALAPHET, 3rd (Cave at) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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4991# AA CAVE, Udaya Giri (Cave on the) Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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