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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (1 July 1859, Pontoise, Val-d'Oise – 3 June 1938, Montbrison), the 'father of modern speleology', was a world pioneer of cave exploration, study, and documentation. Martel explored thousands of caves in his native France and many other countries, popularised the pursuit of cave exploration, introduced the concept of speleology as a distinct area of scientific study, maintained an extensive archive, and in 1895 founded Société de Spéléologie, the first organisation devoted to cave science in the world. > en data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 juli 1859 - Montbrison, 3 juni 1938) wordt gezien als de grondlegger van de moderne speleologie. > nl data from Internet Эдуард Альфред Мартель (фр. Édouard-Alfred Martel) (1859 — 1938) — французский учёный, географ, картограф, основоположник спелеологии. > ru data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julho de 1859 - Montbrison, 3 de junho de 1938) é considerado o fundador da espeleologia moderna. > pt data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel, né le 1er juillet 1859 à Pontoise et mort le 3 juin 1938 à Saint-Thomas-La-Garde, est considéré comme le fondateur de la spéléologie moderne. > fr data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de juliol de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lluny de Montbrison, 3 de juny de 1938), fou un advocat francès apassionat de les ciències naturals i la geografia que és considerat el fundador de l'espeleologia moderna. > ca data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julio de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lejos de Montbrison, 3 de junio de 1938​) fue un abogado francés apasionado de las ciencias naturales y la geografía que es considerado el fundador de la espeleología moderna. > es data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1º luglio 1859 – Montbrison, 3 giugno 1938) è stato uno speleologo, geografo e cartografo francese, è considerato il padre della speleologia moderna e dell'idrologia sotterranea..Era stato il primo a considerare la speleologia come ramo della geografia fisica.Aveva esplorato molte regioni carsiche d'Europa. Aveva studiato al Liceo Condorcet a Parigi, nel 1895 aveva fondato la Société de Spéléologie (Società di speleologia) che era la prima organizzazione del genere in Europa. Dall'anno della fondazione fino al 1900 la società aveva pubblicato un periodico intitolato Spelunca. La società si sciolse nel 1914 all'inizio della prima guerra mondiale. > it data from Internet Der Franzose Édouard Alfred Martel (* 1. Juli 1859 in Pontoise; † 3. Juni 1938 in Montbrison (Loire)) gilt als der erste systematische, wissenschaftliche Höhlenforscher. Der Jurist verbrachte häufig seine Urlaube in den südfranzösischen Causses, unfruchtbaren Karstplateaus.Im Sommer 1888 begann seine Karriere als Höhlenforscher mit der Erkundung der Abîme de Bramabiau und der Grotte de Dargilan bei Meyrueis die er detailliert beschrieb und kartografierte. Im Schmied Louis Armand aus Le Rozier fand er einen kongenialen Mitstreiter, mit dem er viele Ausrüstungsgestände entwickelte und herstellte.Begleitet durch einen Maler war er in der Lage, die Befahrungen zu dokumentieren und schrieb viele Bücher über die Höhlenforschung, die bald zu Bestsellern wurden. Bald hängte er seinen ungeliebten Beruf an den Nagel und lebte nur noch von der Höhlenforschung.Er erwarb eine Höhle in Südfrankreich und betrieb sie als Schauhöhle, hinzu kamen seine Bücher und verschiedene Gutachtertätigkeiten.So erkrankte er einmal sehr schwer an Wasser, welches er in einer Höhle trank. Als er viele Wochen später wieder gesund war, erforschte er die Höhle bachaufwärts und fand eine Doline, die als Abdeckerei benutzt wurde. Daraufhin erreichte er es, erstmals Karstgebiete als Wasserschutzgebiete in die französische Gesetzgebung aufnehmen zu lassen (Loi Martel, 1902). 1896 gelang es ihm, das insgesamt 1300 Meter lange Höhlensystem der Höhle Coves del Drac auf der Baleareninsel Mallorca gründlich zu erforschen und zu kartografieren. Finanzier der Forschung war Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator. Martel fand den riesigen, kristallklaren, konstant 20 °C warmen See tief im Höhleninneren. Dieser See wurde dann auch nach ihm Llac Martel benannt. Er ist 177 Meter lang, 40 Meter breit und rund 9 Meter tief. > de data from Internet Édouard Alfred Martel (ur. 1 lipca 1859 w Pontoise, zm. 3 czerwca 1938 w Garde k. Montbrison) – francuski speleolog. Badał jaskinie we Francji, W. Brytanii, Irlandii, na Kaukazie, Peloponezie, Majorce i w USA. W 1895 założył Francuskie Towarzystwo Speleologiczne. Napisał podstawowe prace z dziedziny speleologii, m.in. w 1898 opublikował La spéléologie ou science des cavernes. > pl data from Internet YagoLegalActorGeo# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Father of modern speleology > en data from Internet Montbrison_(Loire)# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Эдуард Альфред Мартель (фр. Édouard-Alfred Martel) (1859 — 1938) — французский учёный, географ, картограф, основоположник спелеологии. > ru data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de juliol de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lluny de Montbrison, 3 de juny de 1938), fou un advocat francès apassionat de les ciències naturals i la geografia que és considerat el fundador de l'espeleologia moderna. > ca data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1º luglio 1859 – Montbrison, 3 giugno 1938) è stato uno speleologo, geografo e cartografo francese, è considerato il padre della speleologia moderna e dell'idrologia sotterranea..Era stato il primo a considerare la speleologia come ramo della geografia fisica.Aveva esplorato molte regioni carsiche d'Europa. > it data from Internet Der Franzose Édouard Alfred Martel (* 1. Juli 1859 in Pontoise; † 3. Juni 1938 in Montbrison (Loire)) gilt als der erste systematische, wissenschaftliche Höhlenforscher. Der Jurist verbrachte häufig seine Urlaube in den südfranzösischen Causses, unfruchtbaren Karstplateaus.Im Sommer 1888 begann seine Karriere als Höhlenforscher mit der Erkundung der Abîme de Bramabiau und der Grotte de Dargilan bei Meyrueis die er detailliert beschrieb und kartografierte. > de data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel, né le 1er juillet 1859 à Pontoise et mort le 3 juin 1938 à Saint-Thomas-La-Garde, est considéré comme le fondateur de la spéléologie moderne. > fr data from Internet Édouard Alfred Martel (ur. 1 lipca 1859 w Pontoise, zm. 3 czerwca 1938 w Garde k. Montbrison) – francuski speleolog. Badał jaskinie we Francji, W. Brytanii, Irlandii, na Kaukazie, Peloponezie, Majorce i w USA. W 1895 założył Francuskie Towarzystwo Speleologiczne. Napisał podstawowe prace z dziedziny speleologii, m.in. w 1898 opublikował La spéléologie ou science des cavernes. > pl data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julho de 1859 - Montbrison, 3 de junho de 1938) é considerado o fundador da espeleologia moderna. > pt data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 de julio de 1859 - St Thomas la Garde, no lejos de Montbrison, 3 de junio de 1938​) fue un abogado francés apasionado de las ciencias naturales y la geografía que es considerado el fundador de la espeleología moderna. > es data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (1 July 1859, Pontoise, Val-d'Oise – 3 June 1938, Montbrison), the 'father of modern speleology', was a world pioneer of cave exploration, study, and documentation. Martel explored thousands of caves in his native France and many other countries, popularised the pursuit of cave exploration, introduced the concept of speleology as a distinct area of scientific study, maintained an extensive archive, and in 1895 founded Société de Spéléologie, the first organisation devoted to cave science in the world. > en data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel (Pontoise, 1 juli 1859 - Montbrison, 3 juni 1938) wordt gezien als de grondlegger van de moderne speleologie. > nl data from Internet 1859-07-01 data from Internet 1938 data from Internet Template:Quote# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet Мартель, Эдуард Альфред > ru data from Internet Édouard Alfred Martel > de data from Internet Édouard Alfred Martel > pl data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > ca data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > it data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > nl data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > pt data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > es data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > fr data from Internet Édouard-Alfred Martel > en data from Internet 18530 data from Internet Pontoise# Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Lycée_Condorcet# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Caving_equipment# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Lyell_Cave# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet
Martel# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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French_Federation_of_Speleology# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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List_of_20th-century_outdoor_proponents_and_outdoor_educators# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Henry_Lyster_Jameson# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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La_Nature# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Krubera_Cave# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet
List_of_people_considered_father_or_mother_of_a_scientific_field# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Grotte_des_Demoiselles# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Padirac_Cave# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet
Edouard_Martel# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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paths of length <= 2 sorted in chronological order - data from Internet
Cave_survey# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Caving# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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Lipa_Cave# Édouard-Alfred Martel Image of Édouard-Alfred Martel: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Édouard-Alfred_Martel Back-Link Neighborhood: 
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